Strayer Chapter 3: State and Empire in Eurasia/North Africa
Terms in this set (30)
Literally "Summit of the City"; a complex of public buildings in the center of Athens that includes the Parthenon.
Alexander the Great
Son of Philip of Macedon; conquered Greek city-states and then the Persian Empire, creating the largest empire the world had seen to that point.
A series of cities founded by Alexander the Great, who believed that cities were an effective way to spread Greek culture; the first Alexandria, in Lower Egypt, became a hub of ancient culture, philosophy, and science; there were dozens of other Alexandrias founded throughout Afro-Eurasia.
Impressive feats of Roman engineering, these structures carried water from mountains and springs into urban areas with the highest population density.
Most famous of the Mauryan rulers; attempted to create an empire run on Buddhist principles while still maintaining its political authority.
Most powerful Greek polis after the Greco-Persian wars; source of direct democracy as well as a great deal of philosophy and literature.
Caesar Augustus (Octavian)
Nephew and adopted son of Julius Caesar; first ruler of the Roman Empire, who called himself the "First Roman" instead of "Emperor"; would eventually be worshipped as a god.
Powerful city in North Africa originally founded by the Phoenicians; its general, Hannibal, attempted to conquer Rome but failed, and Rome would begin its expansion toward empire.
The capital city of the Eastern Roman Empire after Diocletian split the empire into two halves in an attempt to maintain better control over its territories; modern-day Istanbul.
A system of forced labor in which imperial subjects were required to perform hard labor for the state as a type of taxation; used extensively by Qin Shihuangdi but gradually disappeared under the Han.
Cyrus the Great
Founder of the Achaemenid dynasty of the Persian Empire; developed numerous techniques for administering the power of the "King of Kings".
A form of government in which people participate, either by directly voting on the issues (direct democracy as in Athens) or by voting on other people to decide the issues for them (representative democracy as in the Roman Republich).
Massive public works project initiated by Qin Shihuangdi; the idea was to build a wall to keep out the pastoral nomads to the north (in this period, the Xiongnu).
Early Emperor of the Han dynasty; established a system to train and test Confucian scholars who would become the bureaucrats to administer the power of the state.
The process of spreading Greek language and culture throughout North Africa and Southwest Asia that began with the conquests of Alexander the Great but continued after his death.
A Roman system, very similar to plantations, in which wealthy land owners used slave labor to increase production on huge tracts of land; eventually this system challenged the authority of the state.
Capital city of both the Mauryan and the Gupta Empires, it would eventually become a hub of commerce and culture.
Literally "Roman Peace"; an area of unprecedented growth in which the power of the state was so powerful that there were very few internal conflicts and Roman citizens were free to travel anywhere within the Empire.
Military leader of the Athenian forces that won the Battle of Salamis in the Greco-Persian wars; eventually became the political leader of Athens during is "Golden Age" of culture.
Capital city of the Persian Empire; city in which public ceremonies honored the "King of Kings"; eventually destroyed by Alexander the Great.
A series of columns distributed throughout South Asia on which were carved the policies of Ashoka, declaring religious tolerance and universal justice.
A political system used by the Hellenes in which each city-state was an independent political entity.
The first emperor of China; used brutal methods to end the Warring States period and unify China into an empire.
Initially and independent city-state, it would eventually become a republic and then the capital city of the Roman Empire.
A network of roads that led to Persepolis begun by Cyrus the Great; eventually the system would be copied by later empires.
A political system initiated by Cyrus the Great, in which Persian governors used local officials to administer the power of the "King of Kings" over unprecedented territory.
Chinese scholars who, upon passing an examination on Confucian texts, became the bureaucrats that administered the power of Emperor.
"Senatus Populusque Romanus", which means "The Senate and the People of Rome"; this slogan became part of the ideology of Rome, and along with the belief in the rule of law and the value of a man's word, became known as "The Way of the Ancestors" even as the Empire began to betray these ideals.
Series of Roman laws that protected the social and political rights of the Plebeians.
Capital city of the Han dynasty; also the eastern-most terminus city on the Silk Roads trading network.
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