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AESC Test 1
Terms in this set (50)
the science or practice of farming, including cultivation of the soil for the growing of crops and the rearing of animals to provide humans with food, clothing, shelter & other food products
What are 2 examples of non-food agricultural foods?
the unique combination of customs, beliefs and practices that are transmitted from one generation to another and distinguishes societies from each other
Agriculture only concerns the production of food.
The human population of the earth has recently passes the _____ mark.
What continent has a high population density, but a low cereal grain production?
The average % of annual income spent on food in the US is
less than 10
About _____ years ago, human invented _______ which delineates History from Prehistory
About ________ years ago, Humans began to ___________ which scientists believe was the first conscious cultural act.
The MOST devastating item brought to the New World by Europeans was/were
There are approximately ___________ farms in the US.
The majority of our food in the US is produced by
a small number of large farms
In 1800 approximately ______% of total US jobs were on the farm, today it is ______%.
What marked the beginning of the Old Stone or Paleolithic period?
the manufacturing of tools
How did hominids adapt differently than most other organisms?
rather than just adjusting to their environment through biological evolution, they also developed through cultural adaptation
Early prehistoric hominids were ________.
What was the key to emerging hominids? What was the result from this?
small groups with very few permanent possessions
Why did adult females gather instead of hunting and other dangerous things?
They bore children and gathering was much safer; males did dangerous things because they were expendable
When did Homo Sapiens emerge in Central Africa?
150,000-200,000 years ago
What led to the concept of race?
the biological adaptation as humans migrated to various lands and latitudes
separated humans into categories based on relatively insignificant external characteristics
changes in geographic locations and climate caused changes in ____________________
When did the Agricultural Revolution begin?
~10,000 years ago
Why did agriculture develop?
The end of the last ice age brought warmer climates and wider expanses of grasses and grains in the fertile crescent & as a result humans started settling and developed new techniques to gather and process food
Where was the Fertile Crescent developed?
modern Israel, Syria, and Iraq
What did stability provide that mobility did not?
ability for groups of people to grow
Difference in stability and mobility?
stability allowed for larger groups, more children, & many possessions
After agriculture, what was the gathering of wild plants replaced with? hunting of wild animals? nomadic tribes?
domestication of animals
The emergence of agriculture occurred everywhere.
What are 2 advantages of the farming lifestyle?
-Food & Possession Surplus -> Storage
-Accelerated Technical Development
-Large Families/Complex Communities/Government
What are 2 disadvantaged of the farming lifestyle?
-requires modification of environment
Settled societies eventually gained huge advantages in:
The emergence of agriculture allowed for what 3 ideas never before seen in the human culture?
-Concept of Land Ownership
-Production of Surplus Food
-Creation of Labor Specialization
When did women see their status fall to a subordinate roll?
in emerging agriculture settlements
Development of complex societies coincides with the development of ____________
What were the advantages of Europeans in conquering the Americas?
95% of total Native American deaths associated with the European/Inca clash was caused by _______________
_______ of the Inca population died in the 1st Small Pox epidemic
the stage in human development in which a concentrated group of individuals develop sustained advanced social, organizational, and cultural interactions
A complex culture includes what 5 characteristics?
1. permanent cities
2. specialized workers
3. complex institutions
4. record keeping
5. advanced technology
What is the current US population?
When was the peak of US farming?
What is the average size of the US farm?
How many farms are in the US?
about 2 million
How many acres are farmed in the US?
What is another name for the Land-Grant College Act of 1862?
Morrill Act of 1862
Why was the Land-Grant College Act of 1862 originally set up?
to establish institutions in each state that would educate people in agriculture, home economics, mechanical arts & other professions that were practical at the time
What was the first land grant university in the US? When?
The University of Georgia
Who introduced the land grant act of 1862?
Justin Smith Morrill
What did Morrill want to assure with the land grant act of 1862?
that education would be available to all social classes
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