Math 7 Vocab

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Absolute Value
The distance a value is from zero
Additive inverse
Two numbers whose sum is 0 are additive inverses of one another. Example 3 and -3 are additive inverses of one another because 3 + (-3) = 0.
Integer
A number expressible in the for a or -a for some whole number a.
Rational number
A number expressible in the form of a/b or -a/b for some fraction a/b. The rational numbers include the integers.
Whole numbers
The numbers 0,1,2,3....
rational numbers
a number expressible in the form a/b or -a/b for some fraction a/b. The rational numbers include the integers.
integers
a number expressible in the form a or -a for some whole number a.
constant
a number that does not change.
expression
a mathematical phrase that contains operations, numbers, and/or variables.
evaluate
To find the value of a numerical or algebraic expression.
equivalent expressions
expressions having the same value.
equation
a mathematical sentence that shows that two expressions are equivalent.
additive inverses
two numbers whose sum is 0 are additive inverses of one another.
additive identity property of zero
The property that states the sum of zero and any number is that number.
addition property of opposites
the property that states that the sum of a number and its opposite equals zero.
subtraction property of equality
the property that states that if you subtract the same number from both sides of an equation, the new equation will have the same solution.
distributive property
the property that states if you multiply a sum by a number, you will get the same result if you multiply each addend by that number and then add the products.
addition property of equality
the property that states that if you add the same number to both sides of an equation, the new equation will have the same solution.
multiplication property of equality
the property that states that if you multiply both sides of an equation by the same number, the new equation will have the same solution.
division property of equality
the property that states that if you divide both sides of an equation by the same nonzero number, the new equation will have the same solution.
Inequality
a mathematical sentence that shows the relationship between quantities that are not equivalent.
algebraic inequality
an inequality that contains at least one variable.
solution set
the set of values that make a statement true.
Equation
a mathematical sentence that shows that two expressions are equivalent
denominator
the denominator tells how many parts there are in a whole. Within a fraction, the denominator is located below the fraction bar.
Numerator
the numerator tells how many parts of a whole are being considered. Within a fraction, the numerator is the number located above the fraction bar.
Convert
cause to change form
rational number
a number expressible in the form a/b where a and b are integers and b is not equal to 0
repeating decimal
a decimal in which one or more digits repeat infinitely
terminating decimal
a decimal is called terminating if its repeating digit is 0
terminating decimal
a decimal is called terminating if its repeating digit is 0.
sum
an amount obtained as a result of adding numbers
addend
a number added to one or more other numbers to form a sum
difference
an amount obtained as a result of subtracting numbers
fraction
a number expressible in the form a/b where a and b are integers
proper fraction
a fraction where the numerator is smaller than the denominator
improper fraction
a fraction in which the numerator is greater than or equal to the denominator
mixed number
a number that has a fraction and an integer
multiplicative inverses
two numbers whose product is 1. . Example 3/4 x 4/3 = 1
numerator
Tells how many parts of a whole are being considered. Within a fraction, the numerator is the number located above the fraction bar (top number).
rational number
a number expressible in the form a/b or -a/b. Rational numbers include integers.
additive inverse
Two numbers whose sum is 0 are additive inverses of one another.
common denominator
A denominator that is the same value between two fractions
equivalent fractions
Fractions that have the same value or fractions that name the same amount. They represent the same part of a whole. When subtracting fractions or mixed numbers, equivalent fractions can be generated using the process of regrouping or renaming.
fraction
A number expressible in the form a/b where a and b are integers.
improper fraction
An improper fraction is a fraction in which the numerator is greater than or equal to the denominator.
least common denominator
The smallest whole number that is divisible by each of the denominators.
mixed number
A mixed number is an integer and a fraction.
numerator
The numerator tells how many parts of a whole are being considered. Within a fraction, the numerator is the number located above the fraction bar (top number).
Rate
a ratio that compares quantities in different units
Proportion
an equality of two ratios
Constant of Proportionality
the constant unit rate associated with the different pairs of measurements in a proportional relationship
Unit Rate
a rate that has a denominator of 1
Ratio
a comparison of two quantities by division
Percent
a ratio that compares a number to 100
Tax
a percent of the cost of an item, which is charged by governments to raise money
Tip
the amount of money added to a bill for service; usually a percent of the bill
Commission
pay that is equal to a percent of sales
Mark-Up
added cost of merchandise to arrive at the selling price of an item
Discount
the amount by which a price is decreased
Percent Change
the amount stated as a percent that a number increases or decreases
Percent Error
percentage value that tells how close or how far off a measured (experimental) value is from the predicted (accepted) value.
Predicted Value
the value in a situation that is the real, accepted, and true value
Measured Value
the value in a situation that is the experimental or actual value
interest (I)
an amount that is collected or paid for the use of money.
principal (p)
the amount of money deposited, borrowed, or invested.
rate (r)
rate of interest per year (as a decimal). Interest rates are typically expressed as percents, so they must be written as decimals to be used in the formula I = prt.
time (t)
time, in years, that the money earns interest.
Balance
the principal plus the interest
simple interest
the formula to calculate simple interest is I = prt, where I is the interest, p is the principal, r is the interest rate per year, and t is the time in years.
Ray
A part of a line. It has exactly one endpoint
Angle
A figure formed by two rays with a common endpoint
Vertex
Corner or intersection of geometric points
Side
One of the rays forming the exterior of an angle or polygon
Right Angle
An angle that measures 90 degrees
Acute Angle
An angle that measures less than 90 degrees
Obtuse Angle
An angle that measures more than 90 degrees but less than 180 degrees
Straight Angle
An angle that measures 180 degrees
Complementary Angles
Two angles whose sum is 90 degrees
Supplementary Angles
Two angles whose sum is 180 degrees
Congruent Angles
Angles that have the same measure
Adjacent Angles
Angles that share a vertex and a side but no points in their interiors
Vertical Angles
Angles formed by two intersecting lines and are opposite each other. Vertical angles are congruent.
Triangle
A three sided polygon
Equilateral Triangle
A triangle with three congruent sides
Isosceles Triangle
A triangle with two congruent sides
Scalene Triangle
A triangle with no congruent sides
Right Triangle
A triangle containing a right angle
Acute Triangle
A triangle with all angles measuring less than 90 degrees
Obtuse Triangle
A triangle containing one obtuse angle
Square
a parallelogram with four right angles and four congruent sides
Rectangle
a parallelogram with four right angles
Parallelogram
a quadrilateral with both pairs of opposite sides parallel
Trapezoid
a quadrilateral with exactly one pair of parallel sides
Triangle
a polygon with three sides
Rhombus
a parallelogram with four congruent sides
Perimeter
the distance around the figure
Area
the number of square units it encloses
Circle
the set of all points in a plane that are equidistant from a given point, called the center
Chord
a segment whose endpoints are on the circle
Diameter
a chord that passes through the center of the circle
Radius
a segment that has one endpoint at the center of the circle and the other endpoint on the circle
Circumference
the distance around a circle. You calculate the circumference of a circle by multiplying the diameter by π
Similar Figures
Figures whose corresponding sides are proportional and corresponding angles are congruent
Corresponding
Sides or angles that lie in the same location on different figures
Proportions
An equality of two ratios
Scale Factor
The ratio used to enlarge or reduce similar figures. The scale factor comes from simplifying the ratio between two corresponding parts
Scale Model
A proportional model of a three-dimensional object. The model's dimensions are related to the dimensions of the actual object by a ratio called the scale factor.
Scale
The ratio between two sets of measurements. Scales can use the same units or different units.
Prism
A three dimensional figure with two parallel bases that are congruent polygons, and lateral faces that are parallelograms. A prism is named for the shape of its base.
Surface Area
the sum of the areas of the base(s) and the lateral faces of a space figure
Volume
the number of cubic units needed to fill a three-dimensional figure
Pyramid
a space figure with triangular faces that meet at a vertex, and a base that is a polygon. A pyramid is named for the shape of its base.
Cross-Section
The two-dimensional face that is the result of a three-dimensional shape being intersected by a plane.
Data
Values such as counts, ratings, measurements, or opinions that are gathered to answer questions.
Line Plot
A quick, simple way to organize data along a number line where the X's (or other symbols) above a number represent how often each value is mentioned
Mean
A value that represents the "evening out" of the values in a set of data
Measures of Center
Establish a central location in the data set
Measures of Variability
Establish the degree of variability (or scatter) of the individual data values and their deviations from the measures of center
Median
The number that is the midpoint of a set of data
Mode
The data value that occurs the most
Range
The difference between the least value and the greatest value in a data set
Statistics
The practice of collecting and analyzing data in large quantities
Cluster
a group of things or persons close together
Distribution
The arrangement of values in a data set
Frequency Table
A list of items or intervals that shows the number of times, or frequency, with which they occur.
Gap
a break or opening
Histogram
A display that shows the distribution of numeric data. The range of data values, divided into intervals, is displayed on the horizontal axis. The vertical axis shows frequency.
interval
is a set of real numbers with the property that any number that lies between two numbers in the set is also included in the set
Peak
being at the point of maximum frequency, intensity, use, etc.
Box Plot
a method of visually displaying a distribution of data values by using the median, quartiles, and extremes of the data set. A box shows the middle 50% of the data
Five-Number Summary
The minimum, value, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and maximum value
Inter-Quartile Range
a measure of variation in a set of numerical data, the inter-quartile range is the distance between the first and third quartiles of the data set
Lower Quartile
for a data set with median m, the first quartile is the median of the data values less than m
Maximum Value
The greatest value in a data set
Minimum Value
The lowest value in a data set
Outlier
a value that lies far from the "center" of a distribution
Quartiles
one of the values of a variable that divides the distribution of the variable into four groups having equal frequencies
Upper Quartile
for a data set with median m, the third quartile is the median of the data values greater than m
Mean Absolute Deviation
The average distance of all data values from the mean of the set
Variability
Degree to which data are spread out around a center value
Representative Sample
A sample in which every member of the population has an equal chance of being included in the sample. Random sampling is the best way to produce a representative sample that will support valid inferences.
Measures of Center
Mean, median, and mode
Range
The difference between the maximum and minimum values in a distribution
Outliers
Values significantly higher or lower than the other data values in a data set.
Outcome
A possible result.
Probability
A number between 0 and 1 that describes the likelihood that an outcome will occur.
Experimental Probability
A probability that is determined through experimentation.
Theoretical Probability
A probability obtained by analyzing a situation.
Tree Diagram
A diagram used to determine the number of possible outcomes in a probability situation.
Payoff
The number of points (or dollars or other objects of value) a player in a game receives for a particular outcome.
Area Model
A diagram in which fractions of the area of the diagram correspond to probabilities in a situation.
Expected Value
The average payoff over the long run.
Binomial Probability
The probability of getting one of two outcomes.