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Chapter 6 Launchpad
Terms in this set (31)
_____ are organisms that derive energy from sunlight.
Batteries in your flashlight are examples of _____ energy.
The degree of disorder, or number of microstates, is called:
Gibbs free energy is defined as:
the amount of energy available to do work.
In a reaction, enzymes change the:
Organisms that derive both their energy and carbon from organic compounds are:
An avalanche is an example of _____ energy.
Which of the following has the most entropy, individual nucleotides or a nucleic acid?
A. The entropy of the nucleotides and nucleic acid would be the same.
B. individual nucleotides
C. a nucleic acid
D. It is impossible to determine the entropy of nucleotides or a nucleic acid.
B. Individual nucleotides
Synthesis of a protein is an example of a chemical reaction that is:
endergonic and anabolic
_____ bind to the active site of an enzyme.
Substrates and some types of inhibitors
Escherichia coli bacteria in your colon are categorized as:
ATP is a nucleotide composed of adenine, _____, and three phosphate groups.
The second law of thermodynamics states that:
there is an increase in disorder in the universe over time.
Which of the following is true about exergonic reactions?
A. Exergonic reactions have a positive ΔG.
B. Exergonic reactions are catabolic.
C. Exergonic reactions consume energy.
D. Exergonic reactions are found only in biological systems.
E. Exergonic reactions measure the strength of an ionic bond.
B. Exergonic reactions are catabolic
In a given reaction, which of the following has the highest amount of free energy?
C. the transition state when the reaction is catalyzed by an enzyme
D. the transition state when the reaction is not catalyzed by an enzyme
E. the enzyme
D. the transition state when the reaction is not catalyzed by the enzyme
Imagine that you discover a microbial deep-sea organism that can derive energy from (inorganic) hydrogen gas (H2). However, this microbe can also synthesize organic compounds from carbon-containing inorganic molecules in the ocean. This microbe is a:
Imagine that several atoms bond to form a carbohydrate, creating a more orderly system. Which of the following statements is true regarding the universe after this carbohydrate forms?
The entropy of a universe increases
Allosteric inhibitors of an enzyme bind:
a site on the enzyme that is not the active site.
Organisms that derive their energy from the sun and carbon from carbon dioxide are:
Nearly all cells use ATP as their primary energy source. This is evidence that:
the use of ATP by cells began eons ago and has been conserved over time.
Imagine that you discover a carnivorous deep-sea fish that cannot utilize the carbon in carbonic acid (or any other inorganic molecule) present in seawater to form glucose (or other organic molecules). Living so far beneath the water's surface, this fish is also incapable of harnessing energy from the sun. This fish would be considered a:
T/F: As plant cells rely on energy obtained directly from the sun to carry out cellular processes, sugars are only used as backup energy sources for plants on cloudy days.
You have entered a 5K race. As you finish the last 50 yards, you are breathing harder than at the start of the race and sweating profusely. This is an example of the _____ law of thermodynamics because _____ is increasing.
Which of the following organisms are considered heterotrophs?
most bacteria and dogs
Organic molecules store _____energy in their _____ bonds.
Consider the refrigerator in your kitchen. Based on what you know about the first and second laws of thermodynamics, how does a refrigerator most likely work?
A refrigerator removes heat from its interior and transports this energy outside, into the kitchen.
In chemical reactions, most of the entropy increase occurs as:
Of the following molecules, which has the greatest potential energy?
C. sodium chloride
E. carbon dioxide
Imagine that you walk out of your warm house on a cold winter's day. What is different between the air inside and outside of your house in this scenario?
The molecules in the warm air of your house are moving faster than those outside.
Weak covalent bonds, such as ones in carbohydrates and lipids, have:
a lot of potential energy
Energy of motion is _____ energy.
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