Psych Exam 1 Study 2
Terms in this set (100)
study of mind, brain, and behavior
the subjective conscious experience of "me" thinking, feeling, and deciding what to do controlling body
the person inside you; controlling our body; small creature
the idea that mind and body are two separate entities
Who discovered dualism?
Is dualism supported by modern psychologists?
a justification of own behavior; examples include seeing color or feeling hungry
the belief that we see the world precisely as it actually is in truth ("seeing is believing")
an explanation for a large number of findings in the natural world
a prediction based on a theory, which can be tested
non-testable assertions that fall outside the realm of science; examples inc. God, soul, afterlife
modern scientific psychology (experimental)
What was Wilhelm Wundt the founder of?
developed the first psych lab in Germany (1879); founded structuralism
founded by Wilhelm Wundt and E.B Titchener; aimed to identify the most basic elements of psychological experience
Who is known as the grandfather of American Psychology and the "Pope" of psychology in the New World?
Functionalism and Pragmatism
What did William James found?
Who is the founder of behaviorism?
focuses on uncovering the general laws of learning by looking outside the organism (behavior); founded by Skinner & Watson
Sigmund Freud & Jung
Who founded psychoanalysis?
focuses on the unconscious mind; internal psychological processes of which we're unaware; criticized
Who founded cognitivism?
the development of computers
What was cognitivism inspired by?
hardware (brain)-->software (mind) analogy; focuses on mental processes involved in different aspects of thinking
sexual reproduction produces diversity; natural selection; explains the giraffe
What type of psychologist works with people who have mental disorders?
What type of psychologist works with people experiencing temporary or self-contained problems?
What type of psychologist works to develop intervention programs?
What type of psychologist deals with babies?
What type of psychologist does research on the brain and memory?
What type of psychologist assesses, diagnoses, and assists with the rehab of a prison inmate?
are our behaviors attributed mostly to our genes or our rearing environment
free will determination
to what extent are our behaviors freely selected, rather than caused by factors outside of our control environment
Because after more scientific research it was uncovered that the facilitator was the one who was selecting which keys were typed on the keyboard versus the child just being assisted with free will to choose whichever key he or she wanted. Lead to sexual assault cases.
Why did the facilitated communication test with the autistic child fail?
intuitive thinking; quick, reflexive, automatic; rely on heuristics; operates automatically; can't be turned off (Atkinson & Shiffrin)
mental short cuts or rules of thumb that we use daily; reduce the cognitive energy required to solve problems
analytical thinking; slow, require effort (controlled process); examples: brace for a starter gun in a race, fill out a tax form
system I generates suggestions for system II; system I runs into difficulty-->system II supports more specific processing
What is the interaction between system I and system II?
a research method that involves watching behavior in real world setting; has a high degree of external validity and a low degree of internal validity
high degree of external validity
What is the strength of naturalistic observation?
low degree of internal validity
What is the weakness of naturalistic observation?
extent to which we can generalize our findings to the real world
extent to which we can draw cause and effect inferences; example: ice cream and drowning-->temperature
case study designs
studying one person or small number of people for an extended period of time
rare types of brain damage or mental illness
What are case study designs common with?
self report measures and surveys
common; assess characteristics such as personalities or mental illness
1) random assignment of participant groups
2) one manipulated variable
3) one control group
What makes a study an experiment?
ensures every person has an equal chance of being chosen to participate;
consistency of measurement
extent to which a measure assesses what it claims to measure
brain cells that specialize in communication
cell body (soma)
center of the neuron; builds new cell components
branch-like; receive info from other neurons
trail of neuron
knob at the end of axons that contains synaptic vesicles filled with neurotransmitters
gap between neurons
GLUE; insulate material around axon; as many glial cells as neurons in the brain
covering of the axon; prevents electrical signals from going to the wrong places
sends out signal; electrical responses of neurons
inside neurons (electrical); communication between neurons (chemical)
brain and spinal cord
What is the CNS composed of?
somatic and autonomic
What does the PNS consist of?
sympathetic and parasympathetic
What is the autonomic part of the PNS divided into?
breathing, circulation, digestion
involuntary functions; sensory neurons going up into the brain; motor neurons out
motor control main function; motion memory; back of the brain
sorts data; relay station
integration; makes sense of all the data; made up of neurons
responsible for maintaining homeostasis; controls pituitary gland and hormonal system
send out hormones
bridge between the left and right brain
made up of nuclei; below cerebral cortex; controls motor control
How many lobes does the cerebral cortex (80% of the brain) contain?
boss of the brain; executive function
responsible for thinking, planning, and language
important in speech production
What is more important; the prefrontal cortex or the cerebral cortex?
sensory function; reacting to your surroundings
sensitive to touch, pain, and temperature
vision; primary visual cortex
memory, language, and hearing
motor neurons come out
What part of the human brain is the most developed?
What is a majority of the forebrain composed of?
cerebrum, thalamus, and hypothalamus
What does the forebrain include?
when a patient loses an arm to amputation and still feels like it is there; pain
thalamus and hypothalamus
What is the limbic system composed of?
plays a key role in fear and excitement
plays a role in spatial memory; damage causes inability to form new memories
connects the cerebral cortex and spinal cord; performs basic bodily functions
cerebellum, pons, and medulla
What makes up the hindbrain?
connects cortex to cerebellum and triggers dreams
regulates breathing, heartbeat and other vital functions
controls heart rate, breathing, body temperature, and balance (inc. brainstem and cerebellum)
It can record memories of behaviors that produced agreeable and disagreeable experiences, so it is responsible for what are called emotions in human beings
hippocampus, the amygdala, and the hypothalamus
What does the limbic brain consist of?
somatic nervous system
conveys info between the CNS and the body, controlling voluntary movement
sympathetic nervous system
engaged during fight or flight; requires energy
parasympathetic nervous system
stores energy; controls rest, digestion
Can the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems be activated at the same time?