Whap Rome and china
Terms in this set (55)
Emperor Wu Di
Who established an imperial academy where potential officials were trained as scholars and immersed in chinese classical texts.
High court official of Han dynasty who usurped emperors throne in 8 c.e and immediately launched series of startling reforms.
Vast majority of China's population
Described as slave society
Prisoners captured in many wars that accompanied creation of the empire
What were the vast majority of Roman slaves
In all civilizations
Men were regarded as superior to women and sons preferred over daughters
Rome and China
Flourished around (200 BCE-200CE); occupied similar areas(1.5mil square miles) encompassed pops of similar size(50-60 mil) dimly aware of eachother
Began as small improvised city state(England is my city) on western side of central Italy
In 8th century- so weak, reduced to Kidnapping Neighboring women in order to reproduce
Originally ruled by a king, Roman aristocrats around 509 bce, threw off monarchy and established a republic in which wealthy class(patricians) dominated.
Executive authority was excersized by 2 consuls, who were advised by a patrician assembly, the senate:
Lower class in Rome; led to important changes in rome political life- written code of law offered them protection from abuse; system if public assemblies provided opportunity for loser class to shape public policy; and new office of tribunes, represented them, allowed to block unfavorable legislation.
Effect: Extended Roman control over western Mediterranean and made Rome a naval power
Cause: Victory in Punic wars with Carthage and a powerful empire with its capital in North Africa
Built the empire
Army "well trained, well fed, and well rewarded"
Generous to former enemies; SOME granted citizenship; others treated as allies and allowed to maintain their local rulers
Wealth of empire enriched a few, enabling them to acquire large states and slaves to work those estates, while pushing growing numbers of free farmers into cities and poverty.
Empowered small group of military leaders-- Marius, Sulla, Pompey, Julius ceased-- who recruited troops directly from ranks of poor and whose fierce rivalries brought civil war to Rome during first century BCE.
Traditionalists lamented apparent decline of republican values- simplicity, service, free farmers, as backbone of army, authority if senate- amid self seeking ambition of newly rich and powerful.
Rome; becoming an empire
When dust settled from civil war, authority was vested primarily in an emperor, first (Octavian/Augustus)
The Roman peace; the era of imperial Romes greatest extent and greatest authority
During first 2 centuries CE this empire is disguise provided security, grandeur, and relative prosperity for Mediterranean world.
Emerged 2200 BCE. Under xia, Shang, and Zhou dynasties; grew larger. 500 BCE, in shambles. Any earlier unity vanished in an age of warring states, featuring endless rivalries of seven competing kingdoms:
Qin shihuangdi/ state of Qin
Ruler reunified china, launched military campaign to do so(10 years defeated other warring states).Developed effective bureaucracy, had subordinated its aristocracy, had equipped army with iron weapons, and enjoyed rapidly rising agricultural output and growing population. Adopted legalism.
Scholars who supposed Shihuangdis policies// aristocrats who opposed
Executed and books were burned// moved physically to capital
Creation of Chinese empire had domestic repercussions here. Brief and superficial compared to its transition from republic to empire:
Speed of Shihunagdis policies
Ensured that the dynasty didn't last king and collapsed unmourned in 206 BCE
Han dynasty (206-220)
Remained centralized features in shihunagdis creation, although moderated harshness of his policies, adopting milder and moralist Confucianism in place of legalism.
Rome and china
Defined themselves in universal terms "under control of Rome""all under heaven"
Rome and china
Interested heavily in public works, designed to integrate their respective military and commercially:
Roman and Chinese authorities
Both invoked supernatural sanctions to support their rule.
Deceased emperors=gods; established religious cult to bolster authority of living emperors.
Heaven in china
Neither plane nor supreme being. Impersonal moral force regulating universe.
Emperors- son of heaven
SAID to govern by mandate if heaven SO long as they ruled morally and with benevolence.
Peasant rebellions or disastrous floods- viewed as signs emperor ruled badly and lost Mandate of Heaven.
Performance of daily rituals- maintained appropriate relationship btwn heaven and earth.
Rome and china
Absorbed foreign religious tradition. Christianity- Roman Empire Buddhism- china
In case of Rome. Born as small sect of small province in remote corner of empire. Aiden by Pax Romana. Spread slowly particularly amount lower class. 4th century- obtained state support from emperors who hoped to shore up a tottering empire with common religion, spreading rapidly.
From India. Introduced to china by central Asian Traders. Little support from Han dynasty rulers. Spread modestly TILL Han dynasty's collapse. Not until sui dynasty emperor Wendi(reunified china) did the new religion gain state support but temporarily.
Rome and china
Different relation to society they governed.
Rome- begginings as small city state MEANT romana always distinct minority within empire.
Chinese- grew out of MUCH larger cultural heartland, already ethnically Chinese. Expanded to south, assimilating barbarian people.
Granted citizenship to various individuals, families, communities for service to empire or in recognition of their adoption of Roman culture.
Offered right to hold public office, serve in Roman military units knows as legions, to wear yoga, etc. conveyed legal stays rather than cultural assimilation m.
Language in China
Chinese- represented words or ideas more than sounds; not easily transferable to other languages, written could be U der stood by all literature.
Rome and china
Established effective centralized control over vast regions and huge populations m.
More than Romans, developed elaborate bureaucracy to hold empire together.
- Han emperor wudi- established imperial academy for training officials for an emerging bureaucracy with curriculum based on writing of Confucianism. Beginning of civil service system.
Unlike Chinese developed elaborate body of law, applicable to all people of realm, dealing with matters of justice, property,commerce, and family life.
China and Roman Europe
The collapse of empire meant more than Disappearance of centralized government and endemic conflict. Also meant decline of urban life, a contracting population, less area under cultivation, diminishing international trade, and vast insecurity for ordinary people.
After about 350 years of disunion, disorder,frequent warfsre, and political chaos, a Chinese imperials state, similar to that of Han dynasty, reassembles under the sui, tang, and song dynasties. Single emperor ruled: bureacuracy selected by examinations governed; and ideas of Confucianism informed political system.
Story line of European history after Roman Empire was very different. No large scale, centralized imperial authority encompassing all of Western Europe has ever been successfully R established there for any length of time. Most of western empire dissolved into highly decentralized political system involving kings with little aunti Roy, nobles, knights, and vassals, various city states in Italy, and small territories ruled by princes, bishops, or pope.
Had centralized government (lasted 150BCE -1911CE)
one of first TO write history
Order of China's dynasties
Shang, Zhou, warring period,Qin, Han, Shui, Tang, song, yuan.
Divided by Patricians(high class) and plebeians (lower class)
Served in army and senate.crassus helped him become cuncil. Became dictator.45 BCE- master of Rome.killed by senate.
Fall of Rome
- Conquered by barbarians.
- Began to fall when they included/helped Greek. Offered citizenship.
Growth of the Roman Empire
Represented opportunity. Poor soldiers hoped for land, loot or salaries that might lift their families out of poverty. The WELL to do or well connected gained great sales, earned promotion, and sometimes achieved public acclaim.
Built Roman Empire
Romes central location in Mediterranen basin and the "well trained, well fed, and well rewarded" army.