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AP US History- Important Legislation

Brief description of most important legislation in American History
Articles of Confederation
This document, the nation's first constituion, was adopted by the Second Continental Congress in 1871 during the Revolution. The document was limited because states held most of the power, and Congress lacked the power to tax, regulate trade, or control coinage
Land Ordinance
(1785) Acerage in the old northwest should be sold and the proceeds should be used to pay off the national debt. Some lands were set aside for the construction of public schools.
Northwest Ordinance
(1787) Established the process by which territories could become states. Temporary constitutuion/50,000 settlers - permanent constitution.
Judiciary Act of 1789
(1789) The Congress created a national court system of 13 District Courts. The Supreme Court would settle the differences between federal and state laws. (George Washington)
Hamilton's Financial Plan
1.-National government pays revolutionary war debt. 2- Establishment of a National Bank (20 years) 3- Excise tax on whiskey 4- Protective Tariff
Bill of Rights
Added to Constitution to protect rights of citizens.
Fugitive Slaw Law of 1793
Enabled southerner to track down runaway slaves in northern states (earlier one)
Alien and Sedition Acts
(1798) The Federalists, concerned about criticism from the Republican opposition, passed this law that made it easier to arrest a citixen who criticized the national government. (John Adams)
11th Ammendment
The federal courts have no authority in suits by citizens against a state. If a citizen wants to sue a state, they must use that state's court system. (John Adams)
Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions
(1800) In these acts, Madison and Jefferson spoke out against the Alien and Sedition Acts and outlined states right and the concept of nullification.
Judiciary act of 1801
6 new Federal Judgeships were appointed (Federalist) reduced supreme court from 6 to 5 justices (Federalists did not wasnt Jefferson to appoint a justice) (John Adams)
Marbury v. Madison
(1801) Established Judicial review, gives the supreme court the right to declare laws unconstitutional. (Thomas Jefferson)
12th Ammendment
(1804) Separate elections for President and Vice President. (Thomas Jefferson)
Embargo Act
(1807) To avoid war, Jefferson forbade American ships to sail to foreign ports and prohibited american exports to foreign countries.(Thomas Jefferson)
Non-Intercourse Act
(1809) Repealed Embargo Act but continued prohibition of trade with England and France. (James Madison)
Macon's Bill #2
(1810) Re-opened trade with France or England if they agreed to end trade restrictions with the United States.(James Madison)
1st Bank of United States Expires
(1811) State banks take over duties. (James Madison)
Hartford Convention Resolutions
(1812) New England states recommended Constitutional changes since they were losing political power to the South and the west. Their attempt to assert "state rights" was viewed as tratorous by the rest of the country. (James Madison)
American System
(1816) Proposed by Henry Clay of Kentucky. This plan called for protective tariffs and federally supported internal improvements. (James Madison)
1816 Tariff
(1816) Increased duties on imports another 20%. Designed to protect American Business. (James Madison)
Missouri Compromise
(1820) Maine is admitted as a free state, Missouri as a slave state. North of 36 degress 30" "Forever free." (James Monroe)
1824 Tariff
(1824) Tariff increased taxes on more imports. (James Monroe)
Tariff of Abominations
(1828) Favored Western and New England areas (hemp, wool, plax, textiles) hated by the south. (John Quincy Adams)
Maysville Road Veto
(1830) Jackson won against federal dollard for internal improvement. This was a road in Kentucky between Maysville and Lexington. (Andrew Jackson)
Indian Removal Act
(1830) Forced Native Americans to move west of the Mississippi River.(Andrew Jackson)
Webster-Hayne Debate
(1830) Webster called for national unity "Union now and forever inseparable." Hayne (South Carolina) called for states rights and nullification. (Andrew Jackson)
Bank of U.S. recharter veto
(1830) Henry Clay sponsored a bill to recharter the bank. Andrew Jackson vetoed the bill. (Andrew Jackson)
Tariff of 1832
Lower tax rates than the Tariff of Abominations. (Andrew Jackson)
Nullificaion Crisis
(1832) In respone to the new tariff, South Carolina declared the tariffs "void" and threatened to secede from the Union. (Andrew Jackson)
Force Bill
(1833) Jackson, enraged of South Carolina's threats of secession, urged Congress to pass this bill designed to require South Carolina to collect the tariff. (Andrew Jackson)
Compromise Tariff
(1833) Sponsored by Henry Clay. This gradually reduced tariff rates. (Andrew Jackson)
Specie Circular
(1836) Jackson required that all western lands must be purchsed with Gold and Silver (hard currency). Jackson feared land speculation would ruin the economy. (Andrew Jackson)
Independent Treasury Act
(1840) Gave the government control of the monetary system by regulating the currency in circulation and establishing reserves. (Martin Van Buren)
New Bank of the US vetoed by Tyler
(1841) Tyler left the Whig party after his veto of this Whig sponsored proposal. (James Polk)
Walker Tariff
(1846) Secretary of the Treasury Walker (Mississippi) proposed to slash tariff rates; Congress approved with northern objections. (James Polk)
Wilmot Proviso
(1846) Wilmot, a northern Democrat, proposed that slavery be prohibited in the areas conquered in the Mexican-American war. Theis ammendment passed in the House (twice) but failed in the Senate. (James Polk)
Popular Sovereignty
(1846) Proposed by Stephen Douglas, called for the residents of the state to decide by the ballot if slavery should be permitted. (James Polk)
Nashville Convention
(1850) Nine southern states sent delegates to meet and discuss the slavery "dilemma". They disagreed with the President and the Wilmot Proviso.
Compromise of 1850
(Henry Clay) 1- California is admitted as a free state. 2-New Mexico and Utah territories: no restriction on slavery. 3- Texas-New Mexico border dispute settled in New Mexico's favor 4- Federal government assumes the debt of Texas 5- In D.C. continue slavery, but end the slave trade. 6-More effective Fugitive Slave law.
Kansas-Kebraska Act
(1854) Stephen Douglas proposed that the Nebraska Territory be divided up into two states, Nebraska and "Kansas" . He proposed that the new states use popular sovereignty ot decide the slavery issue. This ended the Missouri Compromise. (Franklin Pierce)
Tariff of 1857
This new tariff responded to souther pressure. It reduced rates to their lowest since 1812. (James Buchanan)
Lecompton Constituion
(1858) Rejected. Pro-slavery constituion. (James Buchanan)
Freeport Doctrine
(1858) Douglas pointed out that voters could exclude slavery by simply refusing to enact laws that gave legal protection to slavery. (James Buchanan)
Crittenden Compromise
(1861) fails. 1-Compensation for owners unaway slaves. 2- Repeal North's personal liberty laws. 3-Constitutional ammendment to keep the federal government from interfering with slavery in the slave states. 4-Constiitutional amendment to restore the Missouri Compromise. (James Buchanan)
Morrill Tariff
(1861) After many southern states seceded, the norther congressmen were able to enact this measure into law. This law increased the rates to the Walker tariff of 1846. (Abraham Lincoln)
Income Tax
(1861) Enacted to raise money for the Civil War. (Abraham Lincoln)
Legal Tender Act
(1862) Authorized 150 million in greenbacks (paper currency). (Abraham Lincoln)
Homestead Act
(1862) Awarded 160 acres to settlers after 5 years of residence. (Abraham Lincoln)
Pacific Railroad Act
(1862) Authorized transcontinental railroad. (Abraham Lincoln)
Morrill Land Grant Act
(1862) Gave states the proceeds of sales of public lands for education (A&M schools) (Abraham Lincoln)
Emancipation Proclamation
(1863) Freed Slaves in rebelling states. (Abraham Lincoln)
National Bank Act
(1863) Issued bank notes (backed by the federal goverment) (Abraham Lincoln)
Conscription or Enrollment Act
(1863) White Males 2-45 register for service. Substitutions are allowed. (Abraham Lincoln)
10% Reconstruction Plan (lenient)
(1865) 10% of state's population must acknowlege allegiance to the U.S. (Abraham Lincoln)
Wade Davis Bill
(1865) Pocket veoed (by Lincoln) the bill called for military governors for the ex-confederate states. (Abraham Lincoln)
13th Ammendment
(1865) Freed the slaves. (Abraham Lincoln)
Johnson's Reconstruction Plan
(1865) 1- Almost all the southern men that took an oath of Allegiance would get a pardon or amnesty. 2- States proclaim secession illegal 3- States must ratify the 13th Ammendment. 4- Civil and miliarty leaders excluded. (Abraham Lincoln)
Black Codes
(1865) Laws passed in southers states with the aim of keeping blacks in an inferior position. (Abraham Lincoln)
Freedmen's Bureau
(1865) Formed to provide relief and supplies to war refugees (black and white) and to provide a job referral service. (Abraham Lincoln)
Civil Rights Act
(1866) Blacks were guanteed the same civil rights as whites and the federal government had the power to enforce this law. Johnson's veto was overridden by Congress (1st time ever) (Abraham Lincoln)
14th Ammendment
(1866) Citizenship and due process rights for all (black and white) (Abraham Lincoln)
Tenure of Office Act
(1867) Any officer appointed by the President (Secretary of War Stanton) with Senate consent must serve until the Senate approved a replacement. (Abraham Lincoln)
First Reconstruction Act
(1867) Invalidated Johnson's plan. 1- 10 confederate states becomes 5 military districts ruled by Union Generals. 2- Blacks vote for new state conventions and the 13th amendment. 3- All states must ratify the 14th amendment: Blacks can vote. (Abraham Lincoln)
Johnson Impeachment Trial
(1868) Johnson is impecahed for violating the Tenure of Office Act. He is acquitted by a single vote. (Abraham Lincoln)