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Psychopharm Test 1 Lecture 1
Terms in this set (54)
an administered substance that alters physiological function
Things that, alone, can not define something as a drug
-if it's made naturally in the body
-it's a food, vitamin, or supplement
-it's inhaled, snorted, swallowed, injected
Drug classifications (5)
1. by origin
2. by therapeutic use
3. by chemical structure
4. by mechanism of action
5. by street name
Drug classified by origin-example
-opiate drugs are derived from the plant opium poppy
-opioids come from labs
Drug classified by therapeutic use-example
amphetamine can be used as an appetite suppressant or as a stimulant-multiple uses
Drug classified by chemical structure-example
tricyclics (antidepressants) have 3 rings on their chemical structure
Define mechanism of action
what a drug does to the body
Drug classified by mechanism of action-example
CNS depressants like alcohol, benzodiazepines, and other sedative-hypnotics lower heart rate and respiratory function
Drug classified by street name-example
uppers, downers, painkillers
illegal to posses or use
non-medical, for fun
used for treatment, health and well being, came from doctor
alters behavior, cognition, mood/emotion, or consciousness through their action in the brain and/or spinal cord (CNS), crosses blood brain barrier
-trade (brand) name
Who comes up with a drug's chemical name?
International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC)
What does the chemical name indicate?
the exact structural formula
What is the trade name of a drug?
the commercial, trademarked name for the drug used for marketing until patent runs out
ex. Advil is trade name for ibuprofen
How is the trade name chosen?
defines formulation, including active ingredients and excipients
added compound to help absorption, digestion, etc. (ex. different tylenols)
nonproprietary (does not have trademark) name that indicates a classification for a drug and distinguishes it from others in the same class
What are most drugs of abuse referred to by?
their generic name
Brand/trade name and generic name for 7-chloro-1, 3-dihydro-1-methyl-5-phenyl-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one
Brand/trade name: valium
generic name: diazepam
Chemical name and generic name for Tylenol
chemical name: N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)acetamide
generic name: acetaminophen
Generic name for vicodin
Trade names for mehtylphenidate hydrochloride
What are the generic and trade names for 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine?
-MOMA or ecstasy
-street drugs get chemical names
1st principle of drugs
they are neither bad nor good
2nd principle of drugs
they have multiple effects and affect every system in the body
3rd principle of drugs
effects are dose and time dependent
4th principle of drugs
effects depend on individual's history, genes, expectation state, health, and the presence of other drugs
5th principle of drugs
they do not create new physiological or behavioral processes buy they do modulate existing activities
Deviant drug use
drug use that is not common within a social group and is disapproved of by the majority
Example of deviant drug use
native americans smoking drugs to obtain hallucinogenic effects would be socially deviant to us
the use of prescribed drugs in greater amounts that, or for purposes other than that prescribed by a physician
Questions to ask when discussing drug use as a problem
-Who is taking the drug? (age, gender, race, etc)
-What drug is being taken? (heroin vs. methadone)
-When is the drug being used? (all day, social situations only)
-Where is the drug being used? (in home alone/with friends)
-Why is the drug being used?
- How is the drug being used?
-How much of the drug is being used?
When does drug use become a problem?
when it meets diagnostic criteria
the use of substance in a manner, amounts, or situations such that the drug use causes impairment of functioning or harm
-impairment can be physical, psychological, legal or social
-does't necessarily require chronic use
state in which the user can no longer function without using the drug
How is drug dependence characterized?
by addictive behaviors (loss of control), tolerance of drug, and withdrawal symptoms
-follows long-term, frequent, consistent drug use
the presence of a characteristic set of physical symptoms (withdrawal) following cessation of drug use
a strong desire to repeat drug use; craving the drug
what is intended to happen when taking the drug
effects not intended to happen, ex. headache, nausea, etc.
ex. seeing that someone is stumbling while drinking
-what an outsider sees as the effect of a drug
individual who has taken the drug thinking they feel differently, or feel something because of drug
Example of how drugs are time dependent
morphine reaches peak body concentration an hour after it is administered, then takes 2 hours to wear off
-hospitals administer morphine accordingly
How are drugs dose dependent?
drug is effective in certain amount
-ex. low dose of amphetamine doesn't do much, and high dose does too much
-shown in inverted u dose response curves
What do drug effects depend on?
individual's history, genes, expectation state (how you expect to feel influences the way you actually feel), health, and the presence of other drugs
Do drugs create new physiological or behavioral processes?
no-they only modulate existing activities
NSDUH results for illicit drug use in past month
89.9% did not use illicit drugs in past month
What age group uses more hallucinogen drugs according to NSDUH?
18-25 year olds
How many people are currently alcohol users, binge alcohol users, and heavy alcohol users according to NSDUH?
-138.2 million alcohol users
-66.7 million binge alcohol users
-17.3 million heavy alcohol users
How is substance abuse related to mental illness?
-8.1 million people had both substance abuse disorder and mental illness
Natural does NOT mean ____________.
Legal does NOT mean ___________.
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