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Psychopharm Test 1 Lecture 2
Terms in this set (93)
What makes up the central nervous system?
the brain and spinal cord
What makes up the peripheral nervous system?
somatic and autonomic nervous systems
What is the somatic nervous system responsible for?
-interacts with external environment
What is the autonomic nervous system responsible for?
internal processes, involuntary (heart beat, breathing, etc)
What are the subunits of the autonomic nervous system?
sympathetic and parasympathetic
What is the sympathetic nervous system responsible for?
fight or flight, activates
What is the parasympathetic nervous system responsible for?
rest and digest, relaxes
How do the parasympathetic and sympathetic systems work together?
they efficiently turn on and off by working in tandem
Where does the sympathetic nervous system come out of?
thoracic and lumbar part of spine
Where does the parasympathetic nervous system come out of?
cervical and sacral part of spine
motor signals that exit the brain
motor signals that arrive at the brain
2 types of cells in the nervous system
neurons and glial
Which cells in the nervous system are most abundant?
How many neurons and glial cells are in the nervous system?
100 billion neurons, and several times as many glial cells
What are neurons?
specialized cells in the nervous system that control behavior, senses, and movement
What do glial cells do?
function to provide physical and structural support for the neurons (among other newly discovered roles), axonal regeneration, immune system functioning
Label the nucleus
survival center of the neuron
What does the soma contain?
nucleus, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi apparatus
the receptive area of the neuron
What do dendrites contain?
What is the axon responsible for?
the conduction and transmission center of the neuron, action potential happens here
the release area of the neuron, releases neurotransmitters
What is the neuronal cell membrane made up of?
Phospholipid heads are ___________. Phospholipid tails are _____________.
What does the phospholipid bilayer do?
makes sure that nothing gets in cell that shouldn't be there
What does the presynaptic neuron contain?
release zone and terminals
What does the postsynaptic neuron contain?
receptive zone and dendrites
What is the synaptic cleft?
the space between the presynaptic an postsynaptic neuron
axon of dendrite goes to synapse
-efferent (from brain to body)
-bipolar and unipolar
-afferent (from body to brain
How many axons do bipolar, unipolar, and interneurons have?
bipolar: 2 axons
unipolar: 1 axon
interneuron: celly body only
Types of glial cells
oligodendrocytes, schwann cells, microglia, astrocytes
What are oligodendrocytes responsible for?
myelination of CNS neurons, there are many segments
-one cell myelinates what ever is near it, does many segments at one time
What are Schwann cells responsible for?
myelination of PNS neurons; one segment of myelin each, can guide axonal regeneration after damage
What are microglia and what are they responsible for?
-immune cells of the central nervous system
-remove waste and clear cellular debris
-activated from alcohol
What are astrocytes and what are they responsible for?
-largest glial cells, star-shaped
-some play a role in the passages of chemicals from the blood to the brain
close to spinal cord/middle
away from the spinal cord
*look at neuroanatomical direction pictures
What can be seen in a coronal section?
dorsal & ventral, medial & lateral
-can't see anterior & posterior
What can be seen in a sagittal section?
dorsal & ventral, anterior & posterior
-can't see medial & lateral
What can be seen in a horizontal section?
anterior & posterior, medial & lateral
-can't see dorsal & lateral
What is the cerebral cortex made up of?
two hemispheres, four lobes
What connects the two hemispheres?
tracts called cerebral commissures (axons)
What is the largest commissure?
What are the four lobes?
occipital, temporal, parietal, and frontal
How are the four lobes divided?
by central fissures and lateral fissures
What fissure separates the temporal lobe from frontral and parietal?
What is the occipital lobe responsible for?
visual information processing
What is the temporal lobe responsible for?
processes auditory information and aids in language production and comprehension
-by the ears
What is the parietal lobe responsible for?
processes touch information
What is the frontal lobe responsible for?
decision making and movement, higher order processes
large indentations in the cortex
What is the largest fissure
small indentations in cortex
mountains/ridges between sulci and fissures
Why are there so many convolutions in the brain?
to increase surface area without increasing volume
What is in the forebrain?
cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus, and hypothalamus
What is the in the hindbrain?
medulla, pons, cerebellum
What is the medulla and what is it responsible for?
survival center of the brain, controls heart rate, breathing and vomiting
What are the pons responsible for and what do they hold?
elicits startle reflexes
-holds ascending and descending tracks
What is the cerebellum responsible for?
functions in voluntary motor control, coordination, and balance
What is in the midbrain?
tectum ("roof") and tegmentum
What does the tectum contain?
What happens in the inferior colliculus?
What happens in the superior colliculus?
directing eye movements
Where is the hypothalamus located and what is it responsible for?
-regulation of motivated behaviors like fighting, fleeing, feeding, and mating
How does the hypothalamus exert its effects?
regulating hormone release from the pituitary gland and pineal gland
Where is the limbic system located?
forebrain, encircles the hypothalamus
What is in the limbic system?
cingulate gyrus, hippocampus, amygdala, olfactory bulb
What does the limbic system regulate?
control of emotional behaviors
What is the pineal gland responsible for?
sleep and melatonin release
Where is the nucleus accumbens located and what is it responsible for?
forebrain, reward center of the brain, dopamine is released here when you do something you like/rewarding
What is the thalamus responsible for?
relay station for sensory information from the body to the appropriate lobes
What is the basal ganglia responsible for?
stabilizes voluntary movements
-it's a bunch of regions that work together
What is the hippocampus involved in?
long term memory, spatial memory
What is the main function of the spinal cord?
transmit sensory information to the brain and to distribute motor fibers to organs and muscles
White matter vs. gray matter
white matter is axons, gray matter is cell bodies
What are the dorsal and ventral parts of spinal cord involved in?
*study spinal cord slide
Layers of CNS protection
4. blood brain barrier
How many layers of meninges are there?
What are the meninges?
protective covering between the skull and surface of the brain
What is cerebrospinal fluid?
clear fluid located in ventricles of the brain, meninges, and central canal of the spinal cord
What does CSF do?
provide nutritional support and cushioning
What does the blood brain barrier do?
impedes the passage of many toxic substances from the blood to the brain
-between blood vessels in the brain
Why is cerebral blood flow important?
-delivers oxygen, nutrients, hormones, and neurotransmitters
-proper blood flow is essential for normal function of the nervous system
- highly active areas require increased blood flow
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