What are the testes?
Male sex gland - produces testosterone in which a large number of sperm are produced
What is the scrotum?
External sack that covers each teste; outside the body to keep the sperm at a better temperature
What are the vas deferens?
Tubes that connect the epididymis to the urethra and create a pathway for sperm to travel to the outside of the body
What are the seminal vesicles, prostate gland and cowper's gland?
Supply fluid rich in sugar and hormones that allow the sperm to swim; fluid is semen
What is the penis?
Filled with blood in sinuses to allow for an extension; reproduction function transports sperm into female
What does LH stand for; where is it produced?
Testosterone - produced in the pituitary gland (brain)
What are the fallopian tubes or oviduct?
Tubes that connect the ovary to the uterus during ovulation; the unfertilized egg drops from the ovary into the oviduct
What is the first stage; explain?
Follicle stage (day one to thirteen) - High estrogen in the ovary; the endometrium thickens; high FSH (pituitary) causes the egg to mature
What is the second stage; explain?
Ovulation (day fourteen) - High LH (pituitary) causes the egg to be released
What is the third stage; explain?
Corpus Luteum (day fifteen to twenty one) - High LH (pituitary) levels causes the ovary to produce progesterone and high progesterone maintains the endometrium for pregnancy
What is the fourth stage; explain?
Menstruation (day twenty two to twenty eight) - Drop in estrogen and progesterone causes a breakdown of the endometrium and the unfertilized egg + the extra endometrium is released in a flow of blood; FSH increases at the end of the flow
How does the male negative feedback system control the production of sperm?
If you have a high reproductive system and produce a lot of sperm (high testosterone) sends information to the pituitary so it will stop producing testosterone at the moment and it will slow down for now
How does the female negative feedback system control the uterine lining?
Estrogen levels rise and levels get high; sends a message back to the pituitary and hypothalamus - which stops producing estrogen and sends a message to the brain telling it to stop and slow down for now
Which hormone in the female negative feedback system stimulates the repair of the uterus after menstruation?
What are the five most common sexually transmitted diseases?
AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome), Gonorrhea, Chlamydia, Syphilis and Genital Herpes
Describe AIDS and its effects?
Kills more people than any other STD's - suppresses the immune system
Describe Gonorrhea and its effects?
Treatable with antibiotics - new strains are possible and may not show symptoms but also may cause severe pain - baby can catch
Describe Chlamydia and its effects?
Caused by bacteria - treatable with antibiotics - similar to Gonorrhea have to get tested to see if you have it - baby can catch - causes blindness to the infant
Describe Syphilis and its effects?
Bacteria infection - destroys nerve tissue - causes blindness - caused madness (to go crazy) - baby can catch - sores on genitals
Describe Genital Herpes and its effects?
Caused by a virus - sores on genitals - can become blind or brain damage - baby can catch
What are Placentas; and what do they do?
Internal development in humans; secretes hormones; site of exchange for hormones and wastes through oxygen and the process of diffusion, osmosis or active transport.
What is a zygote?
A diploid cell resulting from the fusion of two haploid gametes; a fertilized ovum
Which hormone is at the highest level during the first four days of the menstrual cycle?
FSH because the follicle stage helps mature the egg
What happens as estrogen levels increase; why?
The uterus lining thickens because it provides protection for the baby to survive
When does estrogen begin to surge and when does it reach its peak concentration?
Surges at day ten and reaches its peak on day thirteen
What happens to the lining of the uterus when estrogen levels rise?
Thickens the uterus in preparation for fertilization
Which phase is the shortest phase in the cycle; and what hormonal activity begins this phase?
Follicular stage; when the egg meets the sperm
If the egg is not fertilized, a particular hormone falls below a certain level and the signals start menstruation; what hormone?
What happens to the uterus lining during 1-12 days as estrogen is rising?
The uterus lining is thickening
If the woman does not get pregnant then the corpus luteum breaks down and the level of progesterone starts declining; once progesterone decreases what happens to the lining of the uterus?
Sheds and comes out (menstruation)
In a female what happens in the luteal phase (days fifteen to twenty eight)?
Development of lining of the uterus
What does the fluid that provides energy for the sperm cells come from?
Seminal vesicles and the Prostate gland
When a female is born, does her body contain all or none of the eggs she will have in her lifetime?
All of the eggs