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patterns of traits
• Unique to each individual
• Consistent across situations and time
• Poor Person-Environment Fit may lead to change
development and formation of a personal sense of self that an individual creates by weaving together many different significant aspects and experiences of their life.
Five Factor ModelThere are five basic factors needed to capture the basic structure of personality:
openness, consciousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism.
One of the "Big Five" dimensions of personality reflecting traits like being talkative, sociable, passionate, assertive, bold, and dominant
social learning theory
Personality: A set of behavior tendencies
- Shaped by interactions
- Found in specific social situations
• No universal stages
• Not enduring traits
• People change as
- environment changes
• Situational influences
- E.g., illness & low Conscientious could lead to cheating
slow adaptability, negative to new foods but can learn to accept new foods
• Seen in infancy
• Genetically based
• Tendencies to respond in predictable ways
• Building blocks of personality
A temperament that is cheerful, relaxed, and feeding and sleeping on predictable schedules
When and why does self-esteem change across the lifespan?
On average, self-esteem is relatively high in childhood,dropsduringadolescence (particularlyforgirls), risesgradually
throughout adulthood, and then declines sharply in old age.
why does self-esteem change in childhood
that children have high self-esteem because their self-views are unrealistically positive. As children develop cognitively, they
begin to base their self-evaluations on external feedback and social comparisons, and thus form a more balanced and accurate
appraisal of their academic competence, social skills, attractiveness,
and other personal characteristics.
why does self-esteem change in adolescence.
self-esteem continues to decline during adolescence. Researchers
have attributed the adolescent decline to body image
and other problems associated with puberty, the emerging capacity
to think abstractly about one's self and one's future and
therefore to acknowledge missed opportunities and failed expectations,
and the transition from grade school to the more academically
challenging and socially complex context of junior
why does self-esteem change in adulthood,
Self-esteem increases gradually throughout adulthood, peaking
sometime around the late 60s. Over the course of adulthood,
individuals increasingly occupy positions of power and status,
which might promote feelings of self-worth. Many lifespan theorists
have suggested that midlife is characterized by peaks in
achievement, mastery, and control over self and environment
why does self-esteem change in Old Age
This decline may be due to the dramatic confluence
of changes that occur in old age, including changes in roles (e.g., retirement), relationships (e.g., the loss of a spouse),
and physical functioning (e.g., health problems), as well as a drop
in socioeconomic status.
identity status characterizing individuals who have not questioned who they are and have not committed themselves to an identity.
a category of identity status in which the individual is in the phase of experimentation with regard to occupational and ideological choices and has not yet made a clear commitment to them, identity status characterizing individuals who are experiencing an identity crisis or actively exploring identity issues but who have not yet achieved an identity
a category of identity status in which the individual is not engaged in any identity experimentation and has established a vocational or ideological identity based on the choices or values of others
identity achievement status
teen has made her own conscious, autonomous, clear-cut decisions about an occupation and ideology that reflects who she is & a deep commitment to these decisions
Which best represents "identity diffusion status"?
BBea doesn't really know what she wants to be when she "grows up" and couldn't care less
about even exploring the possibilities.
• Domain-General (like Trait theory) • Individuals put their goals before their group's
- Entitlement, High Self-Esteem, Self-Reliance, Assertiveness
• Domain-Specific (like Social Learning theory) • Individuals put the groups' goals before theirs
-Manners, Social Welfare, Group harmony, Subordination of Selfish Interests
change is more likely; a researcher discovered that independent women who did not have traditionally feminine traits experienced more personality change during midlife than traditional women who fit the stereotypically feminine roles of wife and mother better; bothered by the mismatch between their personalities and their traditionally feminine roles, the nontraditional women redirected their lived in their 40s, expressed their masculine sides, and experienced better psychological health by their 50s—same for untraditionally feminine men; a poor person-environment fit prompted personality change.
Erikson's 8 stages
1. Trust vs Mistrust (birth to 1yr)
2. Autonomy vs shame and doubt (1 to 2yrs)
3. Initiative vs Guilt (3 to 5yrs)
4. Industry vs Inferiority (5 to puberty)
5. Identity vs Role Confusion (Adolescence)
6. Intimacy vs Isolation (young adulthood)
7.Generativity vs Stagnation (middle adulthood)
8. Integrity vs Despair (late adulthood)
Proposed theory to explain identity development. According to MARCIA's theory, those who ACHIEVE an identity are able to move past ERIKSONS fifth stage. Involves two dimensions: CRISIS & COMMITMENT
Ethnic Identity: trajectory similar to Identity, Awareness of one's membership in a particular ethnic or cultural group, and willingness to adopt behaviors characteristic of the group.
The period preceeding retirement during which a person may make plans and arrangements for his or her retirement.
sometimes occurs as reality sets in and individuals may strive to come to terms with their expectations., bored with all the time on their hands
The stage where retirees reconsider their options and become engaged in new, more fulfilling activities
Overgeneralizations, inaccuracies - Women should take care of children, men should work
Orientation that emphasizes connectedness to others and includes traits of emotionality and sensitivity to others.
-Adopting communal traits may prepare girls for the roles of wife and mother
-Women's ability to bear and nurse children shapes their gender-role norms
Same-sex behaviors reinforcing stereotypes
- Boys-only sports - Girls night out - Women should cook and clean up on Thanksgiving & men
should watch football
What is gender intensification?
Exaggerated gender behavior
- Pubertal hormonal changes - Preparation for reproductive activitie
What is theory of mind?
an understanding that people have mental states such as desires, beliefs, and intentions that these mental states guide their behavior
How is theory of mind measured?
false belief task Take a crayon box, fill it with chalk. Ask children what is in the box - they say "crayons" and then you show them that it is in fact chalk. We then ask them if their mom came in and saw the crayon box, what would they think was in the box? The children would say "my mom would think chalk was in the crayon box."
Why do autistic children frequently fail theory of mind tests?
children with autism have difficulty understanding other people's perspectives.
- Heteronomous morality:
Ages 6-10 • Believe in rules from parents (under their rule) • Consequences/amount of damage • Ex: A child who accidently broke 10 cups had behaved
worse than a child who intentionally broke 1 cup
- Autonomous morality
: At ages 10-11 • Rules are agreements - not absolutes • Intention >important than consequences • Ex: A child who accidently broke 10 cups had behaved
better than a child who intentionally broke 1 cup
Kohlberg's stage of moral development in which rewards and punishments dominate moral thinking
Stages 3 and 4 of Kohlberg's model of moral reasoning. Children see rules as necessary for maintaining social order; how others will view them.
Look at a moral choice through another persons eyes.
"Heinz should steal the drug because he will save his wife and be a hero."
Kohlberg's highest level of moral reasoning, in which moral reasoning involves weighing moral alternatives and realizing that laws may conflict with basic human rights
Bubba is a football linebacker attempting to guess what play the opposing quarterback will call. He thinks to himself, "I know that QB really likes to pass the ball to score because when he does, the newspapers always write articles about him. Thus, I bet he'll pass the ball on the next play." Bubba's thoughts indicate that he possesses
d. a theory of mind.
Max refuses to pay his income tax because he believes that the purpose of government is to provide a social safety net that allows people to get ahead (e.g., high quality and affordable tuition at state universities, high quality and affordable health care, high quality and affordable preschool, etc.) rather than provide tax cuts for the wealthy. Max is willing to go to jail for his belief. Max is best classified as being in Kohlberg's _____ level of moral development.
Which best represents "identity diffusion status"?
Bea doesn't really know what she wants to be when she "grows up" and couldn't care less about even exploring the possibilities.
Kristi's mother finds four-year-old Kristi in the kitchen, mixing up a muffin mix and making a marvelous mess! Kristi announces, "Surprise! I'm making dinner!" Kristi's mother squelches her desire to yell at Kristi and with great control says, "Oh, how nice! Can I help?" She responds in this way because she has been studying Erik Erikson's theory in her psychology class and she knows that Kristi's behavior is typical of a child in the stage of ____.
initiative versus guilt.
The "false belief" task is used to assess ____.
the understanding that people may hold incorrect personal beliefs that influence their behaviors.
While Fred has always thought of himself as the best dancer in the world, he has just begun to notice that some of the other kids in her class are better than he. This realization indicates that Fred has begun to engage in ____.
The goal of the gender role aspect called "agency" is to prepare a person for _____.
The key characteristics of someone with the personality dimension of high agreeableness would be ____.
trustworthy and compliant.
Cultural differences in self-description lead ____.
American children to talk more about their preferences and feelings.
Three-month-old Gerber is eating strained peas for the very first time. Despite the fact that this is a new experience, Gerber appears quite happy with her meal. With regard to temperament, Gerber is best classified as
Mr. and Mrs. Hill have two children, Jack and Jill. They make no bones about telling Jack that he should be an engineer, since men are good at math, and that Jill should be a nurse, since women are good at taking care of other people. Given the fact that male-female differences in math and nurturing are questionable, the Hill's message best reflects a(n) ____.
gender role stereotype
When considering whether or not to steal a car, Mercedes thinks, "Stealing is good for the owner who will be able to collect insurance but bad for the insurance company because it has to pay. On the other hand, stealing provides a useful service for the police on the street because it gives them something to do, but it's bad for police at the station because if I am caught, they will have a lot of paperwork to complete." Mercedes' multiple perspective approach is best classified as being at the _____ level of moral development.
Individuals at Piaget's _____ of moral development have first begun to make moral judgments on the basis of someone's intent versus the actual outcome of their behavior.
autonomous morality stage
Zola puts her toys away in the toy chest and goes to eat dinner. Her brother, unbeknownst to her, decides to take all of her toys and put them under his bed. As a child who has a theory of mind, when Zola returns after dinner, she will
look for her toys in the toy chest.
What is the best conclusion about psychological differences between the sexes?
Males and females are far more similar than different.
the acronym for the "big five" which include: openness to experience, conscientiousness, extroversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism
openness to experience
the degree to which someone is curious, broadminded, and open to new ideas, things, and experiences; is spontaneous; and has a high tolerance for ambiguity
the degree to which someone is organized, hardworking, responsible, persevering, thorough, and achievement oriented
A personality trait shared by people who are friendly, assertive, and outgoing with others
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