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WLW APES Ch. 15
Terms in this set (82)
The scientific study of the origin, history, and structure of the earth.
The innermost layer of Earth, located beneath the mantle
the layer of hot, solid material between Earth's crust and core
The solid, plastic layer of the mantle beneath the lithosphere; made of mantle rock that flows very slowly, which allows tectonic plates to move on top of it
the layer of rock that forms Earth's outer surface
part of earths crust that consists all continents and major islands.
floor beneath the oceans, thinner and denser than land
move large volumes of rock and heat in loops within the earth's mantle, move tectonic plates across magma
Sections of the Earth's crust that move due to convection currents.
theory of plate tectonics
States that Earth's lithosphereis broken into huge, moving slabs of rock driven by motions in the mantle,
the solid, outer layer of the earth that consists of the crust and the rigid upper part of the mantle
convergent plate boundary
A plate boundary where two plates collide with each other, forming mountains, trenches, earthquakes, and volcanoes
the process by which oceanic crust sinks beneath a deep-ocean trench and back into the mantle at a convergent plate boundary
the region where an oceanic plate sinks down into the asthenosphere at a convergent boundary, usually between continental and oceanic plates
divergent plate boundary
boundary between tectonic plates in which the two plates move away from each other, and new crust is created between them
Area where the earth's lithospheric plates move in opposite but parallel directions along a fracture (fault) in the lithosphere.
a shaking or sliding of the ground. It is caused by the sudden movement of masses of rock along a fault or by changes in the size and shape of masses of rock far beneath the earth's surface.
a vent or fissure in the Earth's surface through which magma and gases are expelled
seismic sea wave, generated by a major earthquake in or near an ocean basin
processes such as weathering, mass wasting, or erosion that is powered by the Sun and transforms solid rock into sediment
the chemical, biological and physical processes that break down rock at Earth's surface
Weathering in which solid rock is fragmented by mechanical processes that do not change its chemical composition.
the mechanical breakup of rock caused by the expansion of freezing water in cracks and crevices
process in which the chemical composition of rocks is changed by agents such as natural acids and oxygen
the conversion of rock or smaller particles through the action of living things.
the process by which material is dissolved, loosened, or worn away from one part of the earth's surface and deposited elsewhere.
a large mass of sloving ice and snow that carves new features and deposits sediments
A glacier is a large, slow-moving mass of ice, formed from compacted layers of snow, that slowly deforms and flows in response to gravity and high pressure
the movement of rock and or sediment down slope due to gravity
a naturally occurring, inorganic solid that has a crystal structure and a definite chemical composition
a concentration of naturally occurring material in or on the earth's crust that can be extracted and processed into useful materials at an affordable cost.
coal, oil, and natural gas; formed by the effects of heat and pressure on ancient plants and marine organisms
aluminum, iron and copper; have properties that are sepcially valuable for fashioning machinery, vehicles, and other essential components of an industrialized society, many metals form alloys
sand, stone, salt, and phosphates; lacks the features of a metal. most have a dull surface and are poor conductor of heat and electricity.
Deposits of a nonrenewable mineral resources that have a known location, quantity, and quality, or deposits based on direct geological evidence and measurements
Potential supplies of a particular mineral resource, believed to exist because of geologic knowledge and theory, although specific locations, quality, and amounts are unknown.
Resources that have been identified and from which a usable mineral can be extracted profitably at present prices with current mining technology.
Technology that is only visible through the microscope, uses atoms and molecules to build materials from the bottom up using the elements in the periodic table as its raw materials.
strategic metal resources
resources that are essential for the country's economic and military strength; cobalt, manganese, chromium, and platinum
material consisting of one or more minerals like those making up the Earth's crust
rock that contains a large enough concentration of a particular mineral, often a metal, that the rock can be mined and processsed to extract the desired mineral.
contains a fairly large amount of a desired mineral.
contains a small amoung of a desired mineral
forms below or on the earth's surface when molten rock (magma) wells up from the earth's upper mantle or deep crust, cools, and hardens.
igneous rock formed underground
igneous rock formed above ground when molten lava cools and hardens
forms from sediment produced when existing rocks are weathered and eroded into small pieces, then transported by water, wind or gravity to downstream, downwind or downhill sites.
sandstone and shale
types of sedimentary rock formed from pressure created by deposited layers of sediment
dolomite and limestone
types of sedimentary rock formed from the compacted shells, skeletons and other remains of dead organisms.
lignite and bituminous coal
types of sedimentary rock derived from plant remains.
forms when preexisting rock is subjected forces such as high temp, high pressure and chemically active fluids that may transform the rock by reshaping its internal crystalline structure, its physical properties and appearance.
a metamorphic rock formed when shale and mudstone are heated
a metamorphic rock formed when shale and mudstone are heated
the interaction of physical and chemical processes that changes rock from one type to another, recycling earth's rocks over millions of years.
The extraction of mineral and energy resources near Earth's surface by first removing the soil, subsoil, and overlying rock strata.
Extraction of a metal ore or fuel resource such as coal from a deep underground deposit.
the surface soil that must be moved away to get at coal seams and mineral deposits
Unwanted rock and other waste materials produced when a material is removed from the earth's surface or subsurface by mining, dredging, quarrying, and excavation.
machines dig holes and remove ores
area strip mining
Type of surface mining used where the terrain is flat. An earthmover strips away the overburden, and a power shovel digs a cut to remove the mineral deposit. After removal of the mineral, the trench is filled with overburden, and a new cut is made parallel to the previous one. The process is repeated over the entire site. Compare dredging, mountaintop removal, open-pit mining, subsurface mining.
contour strip mining
A form of surface mining in which a power shovel cuts a series of terraces into the side of a hill, used on hill or mountainous terrain
Type of surface mining that uses explosives, massive shovels, and even larger machinery called draglines to remove the top of a mountain to expose seams of coal underneath a mountain.
piles of waste rock produced by surface mining.
waste material seperated from an ore
Surface Mining Control & Reclamation Act of 1977
requires mining companies to restore most surface mined land by grading and replanting it.
removal of coal and metal ores that are too deep to be extracted by surface mining.
the settling or sinking of a surface as a result of the loss of support from underlying water, soils, or strata
acid mine drainage
occurs when rainwater seeping through a mine carries sulfuric acid to nearby streams and groundwater (acid is produced by aerobic bacteria in sulfur in spoils); Can destroy aquatic life
a mineral that contains one or more elements of economic value
Rock and other waste materials removed as impurities when waste mineral material is separated from the metal in an ore.
The process by which ore is melted to separate the useful metal from other elements.
cyanide heap extraction
involves spraying toxic cyanide salts on heaps of crushed ore, where it reacts with the material and separates the gold from the ore
When the costs of extracting and using what is left of a resource exceed its economic value
The time it takes to use up a certain proportion (usually 80%) of the reserves of a mineral at a given rate of use
a graph used to project the depletion time of a resource based on three sets of assumptions: mine, use and throw away; recycle or improve mining technology which increases reserves; recycle, reuse and reduce consumption.
a kind of mining in which microorganisms are used to extract minerals from low-grade ores.
A small (potato-sized) rock that contains manganese and other minerals. Common on parts of the ocean floor.
materials such as silicon, ceramics, and plastics are replacing metals
resource exchange webs
wastes of manufacturers become the raw materials for others
Learning from ecosystems and adapting their characteristics to human and organizational situations
abandoned polluted industrial sites in central cities, many of which are today being cleaned and redeveloped
Trademark and official name of the company: Minnesota Mining & Manufacturing; the manufacturing company to begin a Pollution Prevention Pays Program.
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