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45 terms

47 & 49 Quiz Questions

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If research indicated that phobias result from a chemical imbalance in the central nervous system, this would most clearly give added credibility to
the medical model.
After Anika learned that her history professor had suffered an anxiety disorder, she concluded that the professor's tendency to talk loudly was simply a way of disguising feelings of personal insecurity. This best illustrates the
biasing power of diagnostic labels.
n a study by David Rosenhan, researchers were admitted as patients into various mental hospitals after they falsely claimed to be "hearing voices." This study best illustrated the negative effects of
diagnostic labels.
When children are told that certain classmates have learning disabilities, they may behave in ways that inhibit the success of those students in the classroom. This best illustrates the dangers of
self-fulfilling prophecies.
Some psychological disorders occur primarily in one culture. However, ________ occurs worldwide.
schizophrenia
Dr. Garcia emphasizes that psychological disorders result from the interactive influences of individual genes, mood-related perceptions, and cultural definitions of normality and disorder. The doctor's emphasis best illustrates
a biopsychosocial approach.
Among women, the stresses and demoralization of poverty are especially likely to precipitate
depression.
Psychological disorders characterized by emotional extremes are called
mood disorders.
Relieving guilt through self-punishment is one of the motives for
non-suicidal self-injury.
People who suffer chronic depression are at high risk for experiencing
social rejection.
Professor Pott emphasizes that normal depression serves an adaptive function by slowing people down and preventing them from engaging in life-threatening behaviors. The professor's emphasis best illustrates the ________ perspective.
evolutionary
A disorder in which an individual is overexcited, hyperactive, and wildly optimistic is known as
mania.
Elmer, the owner of an auto service station, suddenly began smashing the front fenders and hoods of two customers' cars. When asked why, he excitedly explained that he was transforming the cars into "real racing machines." When an employee tried to restrain him, he shouted that everybody was fired and quickly began breaking the car windows. Elmer is exhibiting symptoms of
mania
For the last month, Gabrielle has felt lethargic and has been unable to get out of bed in the morning. She has withdrawn from friends and family because she feels worthless and unlovable. Gabrielle is most likely suffering from
major depressive disorder.
Severely depressed individuals are especially likely to show reduced brain activity in the
left frontal lobe.
Mania is most likely to be characterized by feelings of
elation
Internal, stable, and global explanations of one's own failures are indicative of
pessimism
Which perspective suggests that explaining our own failures in terms that are global, stable, and internal contributes to depression?
social-cognitive
A disorder in which an individual is overexcited, hyperactive, and wildly optimistic is known as
mania.
Compared with those whose occupations require precision and logic, those whose occupations rely on emotional expression and vivid imagery are more likely to experience
bipolar disorder.
Suicide rates are ________ among the rich than the poor, and they are ________ among young men than old men.
higher; lower
Gender differences in depression are least noticeable among
preadolescent children.
Cognitive changes that accompany depression include a(n)
increased expectation of negative outcomes.
The symptoms of ________ are likely to appear at an earlier age than the symptoms of ________.
antisocial personality disorder; schizophrenia
Many clinicians diagnose disorders by answering questions from five levels, or axes, of the
DSM-IV-TR.
Mental health workers are most likely to consider socially unusual behavior as disordered if it is
personally distressful.
Mental health workers label behavior as disordered when it is
deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional.
Judicial systems are responsible for making decisions regarding
insanity
Inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity are major symptoms of
ADHD
A psychotherapist is most likely to use the DSM-IV-TR in order to ________ various psychological disorders.
identify
The number one reason people seek mental health services is
depression
Rates of non-suicidal self-injury in the United States are highest among
adolescent females.
One way for people to break the vicious cycle of depression is to
participate more often in activities they consider pleasant and rewarding.
During the manic phase of bipolar disorder, individuals are most likely to
be overactive.
A major depressive disorder is most likely to be characterized by
feelings of personal worthlessness.
Suicide rates in the United States are ________ among Whites than Blacks and ________ among men than women.
higher; higher
Failures are most likely to lead to depression if they are explained in terms that are
internal, stable, and global.
The risk of suicide is greatest when people
begin to rebound from their depression.
Some psychological disorders occur primarily in one culture. However, ________ occurs worldwide.
schizophrenia
The discovery that psychologically disordered behavior could result from syphilis infections facilitated the credibility and acceptance of
the medical model
When children are told that certain classmates have learning disabilities, they may behave in ways that inhibit the success of those students in the classroom. This best illustrates the dangers of
self-fulfilling prophecies.
Many clinicians diagnose disorders by answering questions from five axes of the
DSM-IV-TR.
Many clinicians diagnose disorders by answering questions from five levels, or axes, of the
DSM-IV-TR.
A psychotherapist is most likely to use the DSM-IV-TR in order to ________ various psychological disorders.
identify
To call psychological disorders "sicknesses" is especially likely to encourage research supporting the
medical model.