57 terms

Chapter 1 Biology: Exploring Life

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Organisms with prokaryotic cells are separated into tow ________, Bacteria and Archaea
Domain
Are the most diverse and widespread prokaryotes
Bacteria
Most of the prokaryotes known as ______ live in extreme environments, such as salty lakes
Archaea
All organisms with eukaryotic calls are grouped in domain ______
Eukarya
Proteins
Are a diverse collection of mostly single-celled eukaryotes, which are sorted into several kingdoms to reflect their evolutionary relationships
Kingdom Plantae
consists of multicellular eukaryotes that produce their food by photosynthesis
Kingdom Fungi
Includes eukaryotic organisms that mostly decompose organic wastes and absorb nutrients into their cells
Kingdom Animalia
Consists of multicellular eukaryotes that obtain their food by ingesting other organisms
Scientists use a general process known as ____ to ask and answer questions about nature
Science Inquiry
Using a type of logic known as ______, a generalized conclusion can often be drawn from a large number of specific observations
Inductive Reasoning
Hypothesis
Is a proposed explanation for a set of observations. It leads to predictions that can be tested by additional observations or by experiments
Uses "if .... then" logic to proceed from a general hypothesis to specific predictions of results that can be expected if the general premise is true
Deductive Reasoning
Hypothesis must be... (Scientific approach)
has to be falsifiable or it's not science
needs to be testable
Controlled Experiment
Involves both an experiment group and a control group, which are alike except for the one variable that the experiment is designed to test
Theory
Is a broader in scope than a hypothesis, is supported by a large body of evidence, and generates many new hypothesis
At which level of interaction does life first appear
Cell
All cells have _____
Cell membrane
There are a number of properties that all organisms share. In humans, exposure to ultraviolet light can result in a darkening of the skin. What kind of property is this?
Response to the environment
If you eat a hamburger, you are mainly eating ground-up beef muscle. What level of organization are represented in this ground-up muscle
organelle, cell, and tissue
Which of the following groups with the domain Eurkarya does not represent a single kingdom
Protista
What is the molecular commonality that is the basis of life's variety
DNA
Scientific experimentation is important in that it allows the experimenter to ______
reject some alternative hypothesis
An antibiotic kills 99.9% of a bacterial population. You would expect the next generation of bacteria to _____
be more resistant to the antibiotic
Emergent Property
When gears and other structures are assembled into a bicycle, the entire assembly can propel the rider
Cells
the structural and functional units of life,
regulate its internal environment,
takes in and uses energy,
responds to its environment
Molecule
A chemical structure consisting of two or more units called atoms
Organelle
A membrane-enclosed functional structure in a cell
Tissue
a group of similar cells performing a specific function
Organs and Organ Systems
Body parts that perform a specific function. Several organs may cooperate in a organ system
Organism
An individual living thing
Population
all the individuals of a particular species living in a community
Community
All the organisms in an ecosystem
Ecosystem
All the organisms in a particular area, as well as the physical components with which life interacts
Biosphere
All life in Earth and the places where life exists
Evolution
distinguished by its unity and it diversity
populations evolve NOT people
Natural Selection
Unequal reproductive success leads to evolution of adaptation in population
Artificial Selection
selective breeding
Evolutionary Adaptation
Individuals with heritable traits that are best suited to their environments have greater reproductive success
Scientific Name
Two part,
identifies the genus,
particular species within a genus
Eukarya
organisms with more complex cells
Protists (multiple kingdoms)
Kingdom Plantae
Kingdom Fungi
Kingdom Animalia
Independent Variable
The factor that is manipulated
Dependent Variable
Measure used to judge the outcome of the experiment
The process of science is _____, _____, and _____
repetitive, nonlinear, and collaborative
Goal of Science
To understand natural phenomena
Goal of Technology
Is to apply scientific knowledge for some specific purpose
Theme 1
evolution (core theme)
Theme 2
life depends on the flow of information (DNA)
Theme 3
Structure and function are related
Theme 4
Life depends on the transfer and transformation of energy and matter
Theme 5
life depends on interactions within and between systems
In order for something to be alive it must have these six characteristics
reproduction
growth and development
response to the environment
energy process
regulation
evolutionary adaption
reproduction
organisms reproduce their own time
growth and development
DNA controls the pattern of growth and development of all organisms
response to the environment
all organisms respond to the environmental stimuli
energy processing
take in energy and use it to power their activities
regulation
regulatory mechanisms that maintain a beneficial internal environment
evolutionary adaptation
individuals with heritable traits that are best suited to their environments have greater reproductive success
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