Bio Exam 1
Terms in this set (47)
Which one of the following is NOT a component of each monomer used to make proteins?
a phosphorus atom, P
A peptide bond _____.
forms between the amino group of one amino acid and the carboxyl group of another
There are 20 different amino acids. What makes one amino acid different from another?
different side chains (R-groups) attached to an α carbon
Which bonds are created during the formation of the primary structure of a protein?
Which type of interaction forms the α-helix and the β-pleated sheet structures of proteins?
You are studying a protein that is made of a single subunit that is shaped like a doughnut. The
shape is a function of which level(s) of protein structure?
primary, secondary, and tertiary
Which molecule shown above contains an amino functional group, but is NOT an amino acid?
Aquaporins are proteins that control the passage of water molecules across a cell membrane.
The protein forms a pore, or opening, in the membrane. You isolate what you think are two
different molecules of aquaporin, and determine that one of the proteins has a larger pore
diameter than the second. Which of the following is the most likely conclusion?
These two forms of aquaporin will have different sequences of amino acids.
Proteins in biological systems _____.
What are prions?
misfolded versions of normal protein that can cause disease
Nucleic acids are polymers made up of which of the following monomers?
When nucleotides polymerize to form a nucleic acid _____.
a covalent bond forms between the sugar of one nucleotide and the phosphate of a second
Which of the following is a difference between RNA and DNA?
RNA has ribose sugar and DNA has deoxyribose sugar
DNAase is an enzyme that causes the hydrolysis (breaking) of the covalent bonds that join
nucleotides together. What would first happen to DNA molecules treated with DNAase?
The phosphodiester bonds between deoxyribose sugars would be broken.
If a DNA sample were composed of 10% thymine, what would be the percentage of guanine?
If one strand of a DNA molecule has the sequence of bases 5'ATTGCA3', the other
complementary strand would have the sequence _____.
A phospholipid is a _____.
nonpolar lipid molecule that is made amphipathic by the addition of a polar head group
Phospholipids and triglycerides both _____.
have a glycerol backbone
Lipids that form membranes have what kind of structure?
polar heads and nonpolar tails; the polar heads interact with water
Which of the following crosses lipid bilayers the fastest?
a small, nonpolar molecule like oxygen (O2)
Which of the following is true of osmosis?
) In osmosis, water moves across a membrane from areas of lower solute concentration to
areas of higher solute concentration.
Which of the following types of molecules are the major structural components of the cell
phospholipids and proteins
Of the following, which is the best description of a gene?
a DNA subunit that codes for a single complete protein
In the polymerization of RNA, a phosphodiester bond is formed between a phosphate group of
the nucleotide being added and _____ of the last nucleotide in the polymer.
the 3′ OH
Within a double-stranded DNA molecule, adenine forms hydrogen bonds with thymine and
cytosine forms hydrogen bonds with guanine. This arrangement _____.
permits complementary base pairing
Once researchers identified DNA as the unit of inheritance, they asked how information was
transferred from the DNA in the nucleus to the site of protein synthesis in the cytoplasm. What
is the mechanism of information transfer?
Messenger RNA is transcribed from a single gene and transfers information from the
DNA in the nucleus to the cytoplasm, where protein synthesis takes place.
As scientists were unraveling the mysteries associated with transcription and translation, they
discovered that genes did not contain continuous sequence for proteins, but rather were made
up of pieces of protein coding regions interrupted by non-coding regions.. However, in the final
protein, only the amino acids in the coding sequence appeared. How can this be explained?
Introns are noncoding segments of DNA that are present in the initial transcript, but are
removed by splicing.
What does it mean when we say the genetic code is redundant?
More than one codon can specify the addition of the same amino acid.
Which of the following is NOT synthesized from a DNA template?
In the process of transcription, _____.
RNA is synthesized
Which one of the following is true? A codon _____.
is the basic unit of the genetic code
Codons are part of the molecular structure of _____.
In eukaryotic cells, transcription cannot begin until _____.
transcription factors have bound to the promoter
Where are you most likely to find the mRNA described above?
In the nucleus
Which components of the previous molecule will also be found in mRNA in the cytosol?
UTR E1 E2 E3 E4 UTR 3′
When the spliceosome binds to the transcript shown above, it can attach _____.
at certain sites along an intron
Where would you find E - P - A sites in the process of gene expression?
The large ribosomal subunit
Which one of the following, if missing, would prevent translation from starting?
Which of the following is not an event associated with termination of translation?
A new tRNA enters directly into the P site.
If you were reading off the sequence of amino acids in the figure to a biologist friend, what
should the first three letters be?
What is the location of the C-terminus of the protein in the figure?
If you were to be able to see the promoter for the gene that encoded this protein, what molecule
would it be made of?
Where was the mRNA that encoded this protein made?
In the nucleus
There are 348 amino acids in this protein. How many codons were used to encode for these 348
How many genes were used to encode this protein?
What is the highest level of structure that is represented in this protein?
Which term best describes the type of membrane protein in the figure?
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