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AP Latin: Ablative Syntax
Terms in this set (17)
Object of certain prepositions
(all those not listed as governing the accusative case). The more common ones are: a/ab, cum, de, e/ex, in, prae, pro, sine, sub
expressed with a passive verb and a person, with a/ab. Caesar a Bruto interfectus est... Caesar was killed by Brutus
With a verb of non-motion, the ablative is always used. Hostes a finibus prohibent... They keep the enemy from their territory (prohibero, libero, defendero)
Place from which
Ex urbe egressus est... He left the city
Ablative of Cause
Timore commotus est... He was frightened (moved by fear)
Ablative of Means
With the deponent verbs utor (use) and potior (gain), the ablative is usually used. Gladiis usus est... He used swords
Ablative of accordance
Sua sponte... Of his own accord. Nostris moribus... According to our customs
Ablative of place where
(with "in" only) If "in" is omitted with names of towns, "domus", "rus", and "humus", the locative case is used. In urbe est... He is in the city
Ablative of Comparison
When quam (than, is omitted in comparisons, the ablative is used. Mare est altius flumine... The sea is deeper than the river.
This ablative tells in what respect something is done or is true. Mons magnus altitudine... A mountain great in height.
Degree of Difference
After comparatives, this ablative shows the extent or degree to which the objects differ. Puer est altior quam puella uno pede... The boy is taller than the girl by a foot.
Ablative of manner
Telling "how", may omit the usual cum if the noun is modified. Magna (cum) celeritate fuguerunt... They fled with great speed.
(regularly with cum). Cum coniugibus... With wives.
Ablative of means or instrument of an action
occurs without a preposition in most cases. Milites gladiis vulnerati erant... The soldiers had been wounded by swords.
Ablative of time when
without a preposition. Primo anno... In the first year.
this construction consists of a noun or pronoun in the ablative case plus a present active or perfect passive participle, or two nouns in the ablative case, or a noun and an adjective, with the participle understood. The construction is usually translated by a clause referring to time, cause, concession, or condition. Militibus vulneratis, dux fugit... When the soldiers were wounded the leader fled.
Quality of Description
Vir magna virtute... A man of great courage.
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