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85 terms

Cumulative Science Review

With the Science STAR test and the second Cum test coming up, I thought this would be a good idea.
STUDY
PLAY
mass
the amount of "stuff" in an object
matter
everything that has mass and takes up space
phases of matter
the different forms matter can take (SLGP)
chemical change
a change that transforms one kind of matter into another kind which may have different properties
time
seond, minute, hour, day, and year are all units of...
distance
the amount of space between two points
objective
this kind of evidence describes exactly what happens
repeatable
if the same experiment is done by some other person in the exact same way, they should get the same results.
volume
space occupied by an object
temperature
the degree of hotness or coldness of an object
energy
the ability to do work
weight
the force of gravity acting on an object
density
mass per unit volume
g/mL
(small) unit of density (using mL)
fluid
anything that flows (liquid or gas)
buoyancy
the measure of upward force of a fluid on an object which is submerged in a fluid
pressure
the force exerted on a surface divided by the total surface area over which the force is exerted (acts in ALL directions)
sublimation
the change of state from solid directly to a gas
convection
mode of transfer of heat in fluids by the movement of particles
radiation
mode of transfer of heat w/out the presence of any particles
evaporation
change of state from liquid to gas at a temperature below the boiling point
latent heat
the heat absorbed or evolved during change of state
condensation
change of state from gas to a liquid
valence electrons
number of electrons in the outermost orbit of the atom
period
horizontal rows in the periodic table
group
vertical rows in the periodic table
amu
the unit used to measure the mass of subatomic particles (abbreviation)
ionic bond
a bond formed by the donation of electrons
covalent bond
a bond formed by the sharing of electrons
polar covalent bond
a covalent bond where 1 atom attracts the electron pair more than the other one
ion
charged atom
reactants
substances that start a reaction
products
substances that are formed as a result of a chemical reaction
solubility
a measure of how well a solute can dissolve in a solvent at a given temperature
exothermic reaction
a reaction that releases heat
endothermic reaction
a reaction that absorbs heat
solute
a substance that is present in a solution in a smaller amout and is dissolved by the solvent
suspension
a mixture in which particles can be seen and easily separated by settling or filtration
saturated solution
a solution in which so much solute is dissolved that when more is added, it settles on the bottom
monomer
small molecule that makes up the links in a polymer chain
polymerization
the addition of small molecules to make a larger molecule
precipitate
insoluble solid that forms from a solution during a chemical reaction
solvent
the part of a solution present in the largest amount and that dissolves other substances
concentrated solution
a mixture that has a lot of solute dissolved in it
concentration
the amount of 1 material in a certain volume of another material
indicator
a compound that changes color in the presence of an acid or a base
corrosive
the way in which acids react with some metals so as to eat away the metal
neutralization
a reaction of an acid and a base, yielding a solution that is not as acidic or basic as the starting solutions were
allotropes
different forms of carbon
organic compounds
comes from living things
unsaturated hydrocarbons
have double or triple bonds
net force
the sum of all the forces on an object
compression
a force that brings the molecules nearer to each other
tension
a pulling force that acts on a rope or a string (well, that kind of thing)
normal force
force equal and opposite to the weight of an object
vector quantity
has both magnitude and direction
1.4 g/m
LA wax candle has a volume of 1000 mL and a mass of 1.4 kg. What is the density of the candle? (include units)
4 g/cm3
4 g/cm3A solid brass block measures 2 cm x 2 cm x 3 cm and has a mass of 48. Find the density (include units)
Jupiter
The biggest planet
3
For each and every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction. (number of Newton's law)
1
an object at rest will remain at rest until a force is applied/an object in motion will continue in the same motion until a force is applied (number of Newton's law)
a=f/m
formula of acceleration
2
a=f/m (number of Newton's law)
15 kg
You push a grocery cart with a force of 30 N and it accelerates at 2 m/s2. What is its mass? (include units)
40 N
As you coast down the hill on your bike, you accelerate at 0.5 m/s2. If the total mass of your body and the bicycle is 80 kg, with what force is gravity pulling you down the hill?
terrestrial planets
mercury, venus, earth, mars...what are they?
gas planets
jupiter, saturn, uranus, neptune
gravity and inertia
what two forces keep objects in orbit? (in alphabetical order)
comet
an object in space made mostly of ice and dust, has a tail that always goes away from the sun due to solar wind
meteor
a chunk of burning rock traveling through Earth's atmosphere
Titan
saturn's largest moon
corona
outermost atmosphere of the sun
chromosphere
inner atmosphere of the sun
photosphere
visible surface of the sun
core
the part of the sun where nuclear fusion occurs
radiation zone
the part of the sun right after the core
convection zone
the part of the sun right outside the radiation zone
main sequence
the kind of star that is in the main part of its life cycle
red giants
a star after main sequence star that has expanded and is cool but very bright
white dwarf
star after red giant that is very hot but dim
black dwarf
a white dwarf star that was stopped glowing
nebula
a huge cloud of dust and gas from which stars form
protostar
the first stage in the life cycle of a star
spectroscopy
a method of studying an object by examining the visible light and other electromagnetic waves it creates
Milky Way Galaxy
the spiral galaxy to which our solar system belongs