INSY Exam 3
Terms in this set (57)
Relocating business processes, such as development and production to lower-cost locations in other countries.
The use of components or labor from outside suppliers.
Analyzes a company's data to determine the most effective way to collect and store it; create databases, date entry forms, and reports; define backup procedures, provide access to authorized users, and supervise the day-to-day use of databases
Designs and tests new hardware products, such as computer chips, circuit boards, computers, and peripheral devices.
Creates documentation for large programming projects and writes the online or printed user manuals that accompany computers, peripheral devices, and software.
Plans, installs, and maintains one or more local area networks; also provide network accounts and access rights to approved users; troubleshoot connectivity problems and respond to requests from a network's users for new software
VAR (Value-added reseller)
Combines commercially available products with specialty hardware or software to create a computer system designed to meet the needs of a specific industry.
Contains information that is outside normal or acceptable ranges (used to analyze potential problems, such as continued inventory shorages or an excessive number of customers making late payments)
Combines, groups, or totals data.
Ad hoc report (sometimes called demand report)
A customized report, generated to supply specific information not available in schedule reprots; typically used by upper-level manager to gather data pertaining to specific business problems.
Transaction processing system (TPS)
Provides a way to collect, process, store, display, modify, or cancel transactions.
Decision support system (DSS)
Helps people make decisions by directly manipulating data, analyzing data from external sources, generating statistical projections, and creating data models of various scenarios.
Collects and holds a group of transactions until the end of a day or pay period, when the entire batch is processed; proceeds without human intervention, until all transactions are completed or until an error occurs.
OLTP (online transaction processing system)
Real time processing in which each transaction is processed as it is entered.
Expert system (sometimes called a knowledge-based system)
Designed to analyze data and produce a recommendation, diagnosis, or decision based on a set of facts and rules.
Uses computer circuitry to simulate the way a brain might process information, learn, and remember.
PERT (Program Evaluation and Review Technique)
Method for analyzing the time needed to complete each project task and identifying the minimum time needed to complete the total project.
WBS (Work breakdown structure)
Breaks a complex task into a series of subtasks; the hierarchy of tasks is typically shown as a hierarchical diagram, but it can also be formatted as a simple outline
Uses bars to show the timing of development tasks as they occur over time; each bar represents a rask; the length of the bar indicates the tasks expected duration
SDLC (System development life cycle)/Phases
The phases an information systems progress through as it is developed, used, and finally retired. Phases: Planning, Analysis, Design, Implementation, Maintenance
In which data is processed on a centrally located computer
In which processing tasks are distributed to servers and workstations
Ensures that the application reliably and correctly
Performed to ensure that the modules operate together correctly
Ensures that all hardware and software components work together correctly
Collection of information; typically stored as computer files
Underlying structure of a database
Allows one-to-one and one-to-many relationships, linked in a hierarchical structure
Uses a mesh-like structure to offer the additional capacity to define many-to-many relationships
Stores data in a collection of related tables
Object database (object-oriented database)
Stores data as objects, wich can be grouped into classes and defined by attributes and methods
Used to describe a variety of technologies that combine object-oriented and relational concepts; organized as one or more tables, with the flexibility to store unique types of data and program code necessary to access that data
DBMS (Database management system)
Refers to software that is designed to manage data stored in a database
A repository for data from more than one database
Refers to the process of analyzing existing database information to discover previously unknown and potentially useful information, including relationships and patterns.
Refers to the number of associations that can exist between two record types.
A markup language that allows field tags, data, and tables to be incorporated into a Web document.
A process that helps database designers create a database structure that minimizes storage space and increases processing efficiency.
A field that contains data unique to a record
A referential constraint between two tables
SQL (Structured Query Language)
Typically works behind the scenes as an intermediary between the database client software provided to users and the database itself.
create database/table; add, modify, delete data; retrieve, join data
Defines a certain elements that must be manipulated to achieve a result or goal
A set of steps for carrying out a task that can be written down and implemented (mac and cheese)
Represents a value that can change
A factor that remains the same throughout a program
Typically includes commands specific to a particular CPU or microprocessor family; require a programmer to write instructions for the lowest level of the computer's hardware
Uses command words and grammar based on human languages to provide what computer scientists call a level of abstraction
The first languages available for programming computers: machine language
Second-gen languages (assembly language)
Allows programmers to use abbreviated command words, called op codes, such as LDA for load, rather than the 1s and 0s used in machine languages.
Use easy-to-remember command words; full of errors
More closely resemble human languages, or natural languages; eliminate many of the strict punctuation and grammar rules that complicate 3rd gen languages
Prolog and other declarative languages
A subset of the English language with a limited selection of sentence structures that reflect processing activites
A notational system for algorithms that has been described as a mixture of English and your favorite programming language
The ability to redefine a method in a subclass; allows programmers to create a single, generic name for a procedure that behaves in unique ways for different class
Refers to the process of hiding the internal details of objects and their methods.