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Research methods ch 2
Terms in this set (43)
set of standards governing the conduct of a person or the members of a profession
what did the nuremberg code of ethics (1949) do?
emphasized the importance of voluntary consent from individuals involved in medical research
When was the APA first code of ethics published?
When was the last revision?
Classic studies- infants at risk (John Watson and Rosalie Rayner)
Little Albert Study
-tested an 11 month old by named Albert.
-purpose: see if Albert could be conditioned to be afraid
-questionable judgment while studying infants
Wayne Dennis and Myrtle McGraw
-interested in nervous system maturation
-apply repeated pin pricks to the cheeks, abs, arms, and legs of 75 children (pin picks caused distress)
-interested in studying how early development would be affected by reducing environmental social stimulation.
-obtained newborn twins from hospital, twins spent 14 months in his home. Dennis and his wife only interacted with them through feeding, bathing, and diaper changing, refrained from rewarding or punishing them.
*motor development delay for the girls no adverse effects from the environmental deprivation.
how did the APA develop the code of ethics?
using the critical incidents technique
surveys psychologists and asks for examples of unethical behavior by psychologists
Jewish man, was motivated by questions about the Nazi Holocaust and concerned about the problem of obedience to authority
-prison study. Participants were told to deliver what they thought were high-voltage shocks (no shocks were actually given) to another volunteer (also a member of the research team).
-high % of subjects complied with the orders from an experimenter to deliver shocks, most subjects became distressed.
Issues with Milgram study
he was criticized for exposing his volunteers to extreme levels of stress
-bc of the degree of deception involved, he was criticized for destroying their trust in psychologists
5 principles for practice of psychology
1. beneficence and nonmaleficence - psychologists must weigh the benefits and costs of the research they conduct and seek the good in their research
2. fidelity and responsibility- researchers must be aware of their responsibility to society, exemplify high standards of personal behavior
3. integrity- be honest
4. justice- treat everyone in research enterprise with a level of expertise
5. respect for people's rights and dignity- need for research psychologists to be vigorous in their efforts to protect those volunteering as participants
Institutional Review Board
-determine risk to be encountered by participants
*evaluate ethical concerns that may arise during the course
chance that those participating in research would have greater costs rather than benefits
issues with the IRB
-extent to which they should be judging the details of research procedures and design
-overzealous in their concerns of risk
-overemphasizing biomedical research model to evaluate proposals
human participants should be given enough info about the study's purpose and procedures to decide if they wish to volunteer
features of informed consent
-potential volunteers agree to participate after learning general purpose of study/ basic procedure/ amount of time needed
-understand they can leave the session at any time
-strict confidentiality and anonymity will be upheld
-if questions linger or if they wish to complain about treatments as participants, they can talk to people from the IRB
investigated hepatitis, not mental disability -> hepatitis was rampant at Willowbrook institution
-deliberately infected new admissions and placed them in a separate ward but didn't treat them, researchers hoped to study the development of the disease under controlled conditions
-criticized on ethical grounds but helped understand hepatitis
designed to examine the physical deterioration of persons suffering from advanced syphilis
-black men left untreated->never informed about the nature of the disease, doctors said they had bad blood
-coerced them to go to the clinic periodically, were dying at twice the rate of a control group
*defenders said there was no effective treatment when study began
project launched to expose unknowing human participants to the drug LSD in order to gauge the drug's ability as a weapon
-soldiers signed consent, but forms said nothing about potential effects of the drug
-put soldiers in isolation, gave them drug. two people died as a part of MK-Ultra.
what should you avoid when writing a consent form?
when is consent not required?
for research that is exempt from full review
deceived about purposes of study
what is the most common form of deception?
omitting some information in the consent process rather than actively misleading participants about what they are going to encounter
can you have informed consent and deception?
yes, when necessary
all aspects of the research are discussed with the participant
tendency for people who have participated in a research study to inform future participants about the true purpose of the study. can ruin a study
revealing true purpose of the study and the hypotheses being tested
reducing any stress or other negative feelings experienced by the participant
participants should be confident that their identities will not be known by anyone other than the experimenter
What must you do for research with humans?
write a separate debriefing form that explains in one or two paragraphs what your study was about, includes appropriate dehoaxing and desensitizing
-must read this to each participant at the end of their participation in the experiment
-you may not want them to take a copy b/c of participant crosstalk
research ethics and the internet
researchers using internet surveys must take steps to ensure the protection of the user's identity- ensure that cookies are not left on the participant's computer as a result of taking the survey
research with animals
-animals can be easily controlled
not allowed to use animals for medical or cosmetic research
using animals in psychological research
most psychologists do not agree that animals have rights equal to humans
-animal research provides direct benefits to animals themselves
study of human animal interactions
Animal Welfare Act
regulates treatment of animals in research
What are two serious misconducts in science?
plagiarism and data falsifying
taking the ideas of someone else and claiming their yours
manufactured, altered, suppressed...
Why might data falsification might not be noticed?
fits with other data or is not a visible study
-replication attempts have been infrequent until recently
Following standard procedure, you must keep and turn in
-your participant lists
-your signed consent forms
-your raw data (forms, questionnaires, etc.)
What are 4 things research should do?
1. increase knowledge of the processes underlying the evolution, development, maintenance, control, biological significance of behavior
2. determine replicability and generality of prior research
3. increase understanding of species under study
4. provide results that benefit health or welfare of animals or humans
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