68 terms

AP English Literary Terms

to set free, absolve, having no restriction, exception, or qualification; regarded as independent of and unrealted to anything else; modifies the rest of the sentence, not the subject
ad hominem argument
against the man; a claim or argument is rejected on the basis of some irrelevant fact about the author of or the person presenting the claim or argument.
ad populum appeal
appeal to the people
ad vericundiam appeal
testimony of an authority (like a celebrity) outside of his special field based upon his prestige - snob appeal
a short but memorable saying that holds some important fact of experience that is considered true by many people
a form of extended metaphor, in which objects, persons, and actions in a narrative, are equated with the meaning that lie outside the narrative itself. The underlying meaning has moral, social, religious, or political significance, and characters are often personifications of abstract ideas as charity, greed, or envy. Thus an allegory is a sotry with two meanings, a literal meaning and a symbolic meaning.
the reptition of a sound at the beginning of words
a reference to something outside the work
double back; the reptition of a word or phrase that appears at the end of a sentence or clause at the beginning of the next sentence or clause.
the compariosn of two pairs which have the same relationship hot is to cold as fire is to hot
the repetition of a word or phrase at the beginning of successive phrases or clauses
inversion of the natural word order. yoda speak.
a short tale narrating an interesting or amusing biographical incident
the use of a member of one word class (part of speech) as if it were a member of another, thus altering its meaning. I.e. using a noun as a verb.
reptition of words in successive clauses, in reverse grammatical order.
the rhetorical contrast of ideas by means of parallel arrangements of words, clauses, or sentences
to define, expresses a general truth in a pithy sentence
turning away; speech directed at an imaginary person or abstract quality or idea
placing side by side two co-coordinate elements, the second of which serves as an explanation or modification of the first.
the repetition of a sound within words
the omission of a conjunction where there should be one
balanced clauses
a perfectly balanced sentence has two clauses that are balanced in lengthm importance, and even structure, creating parallelism and flow; not all balanced sentences are as pure.
insincere or grossly sentimental pathos
dynamic character
a character who exhibits dynamic change throughout the course of as story's action
flat character
a shallow character, one who is 2D so to speak and only shows us a limited aspect of their being.
round character
a full, complex character; one who is 3D
static character
a character who exhibits no considerable change throughout the course of a story's action
a reveral in the order of words in two otherwise parallel phrases
circular reasoning
an attempt to support a statement by simply repeating the statement in different or stronger terms.
an over-used expression
arrangement of words, phrases, or clauses in an order of increasing importance
a clever, extended metaphor
use of 2 or more consonants with differing vowels
deductive reasoning
applies general principles to reach specific conclusions
a composition in prose or verse presenting in dialogue or pantomime a story involving conflict or contrast of character, esp. one intended to be acted on the stage; a play.
the omission of a word in such a way that the meaning and flow are not disrupted because they are implied in the context.
elliptical clause
grammatically incomplete clause in the sense that they are missing either the relative pronoun (dependent word) that normally introduces such a clause or something from the predicate in the second part of a comparison. The missing parts of the elliptical clause can be guessed from the context and most readers are not aware that anything is missing. In fact, elliptical clauses are regarded as both useful and correct, even in formal prose, because they are often elegant efficient means of expression.
the reptition of the intitial word or words of a clause or sentence at the end
noting or pertaining to a long poetic composition, usually cetered upon a hero, in which a series of great achievements or events is narrated in elevated style.
a statement, or any brief saying in prose or poetry, in which there is an apparent contradiction. A very short, satirical and witty poem usually written as a brief couplet or quatrain
repetition of the same word or group of words at the end of successive clauses
imposed; a descriptor sometimes attached to a person's name or appear in place of their name; glorified nickname
referring to something intense, perhapes even harsh, in lighter, perhaps less painful, terms
to derive or induce (a general conception or principle) from particulars
to miss the mark; fatal flaw
an admonitory or moralizing discourse; a sermon
unusual or inverted word order
an extreme exaggeration
an expression, that is a term or phrase whose meaning cannot be deduced from the literal definitions and the arrangement of its parts, but refers instead to a figurative meaning that is known only through common use.
declaritive sentence
a statement
exlamatory sentence
a forceful, declarative sentence
imperative sentence
a command
interrogative sentence
asks a question
inverted sentence
any sentence in which the normal word order is reversed, with the verb coming before the subject or the complete subject and predicate coming after another clause.
periodic sentence
a sentence in which the main clause or its predicate is withheld until the end
simple sentence
independent clause
a comparison using like or as
a grammatical mistake or absurdity
a grammatical form of verbs implying hypothetical action or condition
the use of a single word in such a way that it is syntactically related to words elsewhere in the sentence, but has a different meaning in relation to each of the other words/
particular kind of argument containing three categorical propositions, two of them premises, one a conclusion
represents something
naming an object for a part of its whole
the description of one kind of sense perception using words that describe another kind of sense perception
needless repetition of an idea, especially in the words other than those of the immediate context, without imparting additional force or clearness.
the joining of two or more parts of a sentence with a single common verb or noun. A zeugma employs both ellipsis, the omission of words which are easily understood, and parallelism, the balance of several words or phrases. The result is a series of similar phrases joined or yoked together by a common and implied noun or verb.