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Arts and Humanities
Music 311 Test One
Terms in this set (66)
The Roman Catholic Church
Who replaced Rome as the cultural unifier after 500 AD?
the early Christian Church
Who does the history of Western Music properly begin with?
of divine origin and had magical powers
According to the Greeks, music was...
The instrument used to worship Apollo
The instrument used to worship Dionysus
The Greeks thought that music and ___________ were closely related and that music was a manifestation of the order of the __________.
notes, intervals, genera, scale systems, tonoi, modulation, melodic composition
The Greek's 7 areas of music
diatonic tetrachord, chromatic tetrachord, and enharmonic tetrachord
Three types of tetrachords
1. established the concept of a pure unencumbered melodic line
2. recognized and exploited the relationships between words and music
3. improvisation without notation
4. articulated a philosophy that recognized in music an orderly system related to the order of the cosmos
5. developed a theory of acoustics
6. established scale system based on tetrachords
7. language of music terminology
7 things the Greeks and Romans left us with in music
Chant of France, Switzerland, and part of Western Germany
Chant of Southern Italy
Visigothic or Mozarabian
Chant of Spain
Chant of Milan, Italy
Chant of England (Salisbury)
Who organized chant for greater uniformity in the church?
Music was held to be the _________ of religion.
it was rejected because it did not have words.
How was instrumental music treated by the early church?
musica mundana, musica humana, and musica instrumentalis
Boethius' three classifications of music
Who considered music to be something a person should know about, not a vehicle for expression or creativity?
Matins, Lauds, Vespers, and Compline
What are the most musical canonical hours?
What are the 8 Canonical hours?
the funeral service, which had a fixed Ordinary and fixed Propers
What is the Requiem Mass or Missa Pro Defunctis?
syllabic, melismatic, and neumatic
What are the 3 styles of text settings in chant?
What is the most numerous type of chant?
newly composed additions that were "tacked on" to one of the antiphonal chants of the proper of the Mass
What is a trope?
What is the form of sequence?
in the Mass after the alleluia on special occasions
When is sequence usually sung?
1. constructed scales without relying on the Greek tetrachord system
2. presented a set of modes that have no connection with the "scale patterns" of the Greeks
3. instructed students on how to combine two or more voices in chant
4. developed a solfege system
5. developed the Guidonian Hand
5 contributions to music by Guido d'Arezzo
Original "do" in solfege
1. Dorian- D
2. Hypodorian- D
3. Phrygian- E
4. Hypophrygian- E
5. Lydian- F
6. Hypolydian- F
7. Mixolydian- G
8. Hypomixolydian- G
8 Church modes with finals
A type of early secular song ca. 1000-1200 about wine, women, and satire
Conductus (before 1200)
(before 1200) a nonliturgical monophonic form used in religious settings sung when a celebrant moved from one place to another during a miracle play or during the service
Conductus (after 1200)
(after 1200) any nonliturgical Latin song, generally serious in character, with a metrical text, either sacred or secular
Song of Roland (ca 1100)
One of the earliest known vernacular songs
A class of professional musicians who traveled from town to town in France from around 900 to 1000
What is the precursor of troubadours and trouveres?
Poet-composers from South France who wrote strophic abstractly texted love songs, some in AAB form
Poet-composers from North France who wrote songs about love, politics, morality, chivalry and courtly love
Troubadours or Trouveres had strict conventions about subject matter, form and treatment?
(1150-1325) the German version of the troubadours, mainly knightly poets or poet composers who wrote about a love even more pious and abstract than that of the troubadours
(1300-1600) members of guilds pledged to uphold the traditions of the Minnesingers. Had strict adherence to rules of composition and it made theirs songs stiff and inexpressive
How many notes are recognized in the hexachord system?
every hexachord is a succession of whole tones except that between fa and mi there is always a semitone
Rule of hexachords
What are the 3 hexachords and their names?
1. Composition was slowly replacing improvisation
2. Invention of a musical notation
3. Music began to be more consciously structured
4. polyphony began to replace monophony
4 important trends ca 1050
the principal voice which always carries the chant
diabolus in musica
The oldest known collection of pieces in organum style
combine two melodically independent voices, notating pitches
By about 1100, composers understood how to ______ _____ ____________ ________________ ________________, because a clear way of __________ ___________ had been established
1. a way of coordinating two rhythmically independent voices
2. a way of precisely notating rhythms
Two things composers still lacked around 1100
Two voices moving along more or less note-against-note
Leonin of Notre Dame
The most important early composer in organal style
The most important early composer in the discant style
Magnus liber organi
The "Big book of Organum" which contains music in organal and discant styles in the same piece
Style of music where at least two voices are singing at different speeds
Style of music where at least two voices are singing at the same speed
Did Perotin write in up to four lines going at once?
nonliturgical, the same, homorhythmic
12th century polyphonic conductus was ___________, _______________, and all the voices were moving at more or less _____________ rate in __________ style
What style developed out of the clausulae?
early, slow moving, faster moving
In __________ motets, there were three or four voices, with the __________ ______________ tenor on the bottom, the __________ _________ different-texted Motetus above the tenor, and the other voices above the motetus
Most motets were concerned with...
triplum and quadruplum
Voices above the tenor and motetus
Franco of Cologne
Who derived the Franconian Motet?
1. fast long-texted triplum
2. broad-melodied motetus
3. lyrical borrowed chant tenor line
Describe the parts in a Franconian Motet
1. very fast chatty triplum
2. slower motetus
3. tenor has a uniform rhythmic pattern
Describe the parts in a Petronian Motet
Petrus de Cruce
Who derived the Petronian motet?
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