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Robert Sternberg distinguished among analytical, practical, and ________ intelligence.


The earliest stage of speech development is called the ________ stage.


Jim, age 55, plays basketball with much younger adults and is concerned that his teammates might consider his age to be a detriment to their game outcome. His concern actually undermines his athletic performance. This best illustrates the impact of

stereotype threat

Stockbrokers often believe that their own expertise will enable them to select stocks that will outperform the market average. This belief best illustrates


A test of your capacity to learn to be an automobile mechanic would be considered a(n) ________ test.


Binet and Simon designed a test of intellectual abilities in order to

identify children likely to have difficulty learning in regular school classes.

To combine words into grammatically sensible sentences, we need to apply proper rules of


A chess-playing computer program that routinely calculates all possible outcomes of all possible game moves best illustrates problem solving by means of

an algorithm

The best evidence that there is a critical period for language acquisition is the fact that

people most easily master the grammar of a second language during childhood.

Boys are most likely to outperform girls in a

chess tournament.

Everyone would agree that intelligence tests are "biased" in the sense that

test performance is influenced by cultural experiences.

Five-year-old Wilbur performs on an intelligence test at a level characteristic of an average 4-year-old. Wilbur's mental age is


Twenty-five-year-old Alexandra is limited in mental ability and can neither read nor write. However, after hearing lengthy, unfamiliar, and complex musical selections just once, she can reproduce them precisely on the piano. It is likely that Alexandra is

someone with savant syndrome.

Because she believes that boys are naughtier than girls, Mrs. Zumpano, a second-grade teacher, watches boys more closely than she watches girls for any signs of misbehavior. Mrs. Zumpano's surveillance strategy best illustrates

confirmation bias.

Spearman's g factor refers to

a general intelligence that underlies successful performance on a wide variety of tasks.

About eight months ago, 14-year-old Shelley went on a drastic weight-loss diet that caused her to drop from 110 to 80 pounds. Although she is now dangerously underweight and under-nourished, she continues to think she looks fat. Her frustrated father recently forced her to eat a peanut butter sandwich, but Shelley immediately went to the bathroom and threw it all up. Shelley most clearly suffers from

anorexia nervosa.

People who are constantly dieting place themselves at ________ risk for depression and ________ risk for binge eating.

increased; increased

Full and clear communication regarding Kelsey's effectiveness as a customer service manager is enhanced by the performance appraisals she periodically receives from fellow managers, subordinates, customers, and her supervisor. This best illustrates the value of

360-degree feedback.

Food deprivation is to ________ as hunger is to ________.

need; drive

Compared with European teens, American teens have ________ rates of contraceptive use and ________ rates of pregnancy and abortion.

lower; higher

The most basic or lowest-level need in Maslow's hierarchy of human motives includes the need for

food and water.

Jeff, who is 14, engages in rigorous tennis drills or competitive play at least four hours every day because he wants to master the sport and play on one of the best university teams in the country. His goal and behavior best illustrate the concept of

achievement motivation.

The tendency to eat more food when eating with others illustrates a phenomenon called

social facilitation.

Mr. Porter believes that aggression is an unlearned behavior characteristic of all children. He obviously believes that aggression is a(n)


When people's need to belong is fulfilled through close relationships, they are less likely to

do any of these things.

Psychologists have used four perspectives in their efforts to explain motivation. These include an emphasis on instincts, optimum arousal, a hierarchy of motives, and

drive reduction.

Research on the environmental conditions that influence sexual orientation indicates that

the reported backgrounds of homosexuals and heterosexuals are similar.

Flow is characterized by a ________ awareness of self and a ________ awareness of the passing of time.

diminished; diminished

Carlos is so friendly and likable that his job supervisors and co-workers often appraise his work skills and performance more positively than is actually warranted. This best illustrates evaluators' vulnerability to

halo errors.

Studies in both North America and China find that married fathers tend to have ________ than bachelors or married men without children.

lower testosterone levels

Lee was momentarily terrified as a passing automobile nearly sideswiped his car. When one of his passengers joked that he almost had a two-color car, Lee laughed uncontrollably. Lee's emotional volatility best illustrates

the spillover effect.

To alleviate the stress he feels after failing a college course, Jeremy seeks social support from his friends and family. Jeremy's behavior best illustrates

emotion-focused coping.

Bernard is an ambitious, highly competitive corporate lawyer who recently had a heart attack. He tends to be impatient and a perfectionist, and he gets angry over little things. Research suggests that Bernard's susceptibility to heart attacks may be most closely linked to his


Attempting to alleviate stress directly by changing the stressor is known as

problem-focused coping.

The feel-good, do-good phenomenon refers to the fact that when people feel happy they

are more willing to help others.

As you are waiting to be interviewed for a job, your heart rate, body temperature, and breathing rate begin to increase. These physiological changes are produced by activation of the ________ nervous system.


Social support helps to promote cardiovascular health by

lowering blood pressure.

When shown a face with an evenly mixed expression of fear and anger, ________ children were much quicker than other children to see anger.

physically abused

The fact that people from widely different cultures display and interpret facial expressions of emotion in a similar manner best illustrates the impact of

human genetic similarities.

Research on the nonverbal expression of emotion indicates that

introverts are better than extraverts at recognizing nonverbal expressions of emotion in others.

The James-Lange theory of emotion states that

to experience emotion is to be aware of our physiological responses to an emotion-arousing event.

Ever since Lupe was scolded and punished by her teacher for misbehaving, she has been fearful of being near the teacher. This illustrates that fear

can be learned.

The two-factor theory of emotion places more emphasis on the importance of ________ than does the James-Lange theory.

cognitive activity

The three successive phases of the general adaptation syndrome are

alarm reaction, resistance, and exhaustion.

Rannilt was euphoric after learning that she had been accepted by the medical school of her choice. After a few weeks, however, she is only mildly excited when she thinks about her admission to medical school. This change in her feelings can best be explained in terms of

the adaptation-level phenomenon.

Mary enjoys socializing with friends and talking with them on her cellphone. Eileen prefers quiet times by herself when she can reflect on her own thoughts. The characteristics of Mary and Eileen indicate that each has a distinctive


Free association is central to the process of


No matter how long and hard Lerae studies, she always feels she hasn't studied as much as she should have. A Freudian psychologist would suggest that Lerae shows signs of a

strong superego.

According to Freud, boys are most likely to experience the Oedipus complex during the ________ stage.


A refusal to believe direct and highly credible evidence that your spouse is suffering a terminal illness best illustrates


Which neo-Freudian theorist emphasized the influence of the collective unconscious in personality development?


Abraham Maslow suggested that those who fulfill their potential have satisfied the need for


Carl Rogers would have suggested that many of the defense mechanisms described by Freud are used to minimize the perceived discrepancy between

the actual self and the ideal self.

The humanistic perspective emphasized the importance of


Factor analysis has been used to identify the most basic

personality traits

A person who is careless and disorganized most clearly ranks low on the Big Five trait dimension of


The social-cognitive perspective emphasizes the interactive influences of our traits and our


According to Bandura, reciprocal determinism involves multidirectional influences among

behaviors, internal personal factors, and environmental events.

Learned helplessness is most likely to promote


A person who experiences defensive self-esteem is ________ to demonstrate self-serving bias and is ________ to feel angry when criticized.

likely; likely

Fritz Heider concluded that people tend to attribute others' behavior either to their

dispositions or their situations.

Which theory best explains why our actions can lead us to modify our attitudes?

cognitive dissonance theory

The foot-in-the-door phenomenon refers to the tendency to

comply with a large request if one has previously complied with a small request.

Solomon Asch reported that individuals conformed to a group's judgment of the lengths of lines

even when the group judgment was clearly incorrect.

According to Milgram, the most fundamental lesson to be learned from his study of obedience is that

even ordinary people, who are not usually hostile, can become agents of destruction.

The presence of others does not always lead to social facilitation because

arousal inhibits the correct performance of difficult tasks.

When New York University women were dressed in Ku Klux Klan-style hoods, they demonstrated significantly more aggression. This finding is best explained in terms of


Prejudice is a(n) ________; discrimination is a(n) ________.

attitude; behavior

The frustration-aggression principle suggests that anger results when

an attempt to achieve some goal is blocked.

Montel, a White university student, is on academic probation for poor grades. Ever since he received notice of his probation, Montel has become increasingly hostile toward racial minority students and staff on campus. His increasing hostility can best be explained in terms of

the scapegoat theory.

If poverty causes high rates of crime, the high crime rates can be used to justify discrimination against those who live in poverty. This best illustrates

the blame-the-victim dynamic.

After three months of riding the 8:30 bus to work, Cindy has actually started to feel affection for the gruff and scowling old bus driver. Cindy's reaction best illustrates

the mere exposure effect.

Following the 9/11 terrorist attack on New York, people across the country donated their time and money to assist the devastated community. This behavior best illustrates


To help people avoid social traps, psychologists should promote an increased awareness of

the social-responsibility norm.

Sherif's study of conflict in a Boy Scout camp indicated that conflict between two groups of boys could be reduced most effectively by

exposing the groups to tasks that required their joint cooperation.

Psychiatrists and psychologists label behavior as disordered when it is

deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional.

The medical model of psychologically disordered behavior is most likely to be criticized for neglecting the importance of

social circumstances and psychological factors.

The DSM-IV-TR does NOT

explain the causes of the various psychological disorders.

Rishi, a college student, complains that he feels apprehensive and fearful most of the time but doesn't know why. Without warning, his heart begins to pound, his hands get icy, and he breaks out in a cold sweat. Rishi most likely suffers from

generalized anxiety disorder.

The billionaire aviator Howard Hughes insisted that his assistants carry out elaborate hand-washing rituals and wear white gloves when handling any document he would later touch. His behavior best illustrated the symptoms of

obsessive-compulsive disorder.

The social withdrawal and haunting nightmares of battle-scarred war veterans best illustrate symptoms of


Exhibiting two or more distinct and alternating personalities is a symptom of a(n)

dissociative disorder.

Antisocial personality disorder is most likely to be characterized by

a lack of guilt feelings.

A psychological disorder in which the symptoms take a bodily form without apparent physical cause is a

somatoform disorder.

For the last month, Gabrielle has felt lethargic and has been unable to get out of bed in the morning. She has withdrawn from friends and family because she feels worthless and unlovable. Gabrielle is most likely suffering from

major depressive disorder.

Which perspective has emphasized the impact of learned helplessness on depression?


George Frideric Handel composed his Messiah during three weeks of intense, creative energy. Many believe Handel suffered a mild form of

bipolar disorder.

Mr. Hunt believes that he is the president of the United States and that he will soon become the "King of the Universe." Mr. Hunt is most clearly suffering from


Positive symptoms of schizophrenia are the ________ of inappropriate behaviors, and negative symptoms are the ________ of appropriate behaviors.

presence; absence

Research on the causes of schizophrenia strongly suggests that

there is a genetic predisposition to schizophrenia.

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