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Ch 4 Terms Criminal Minds
Terms in this set (22)
The bond between a parent and child or between individuals and their family, friends, and school.
Learning how to behave by fashioning one's behavior after that of others.
The subdiscipline of criminology that investigates biological and genetic factors and their relation to criminal behavior.
Basic cellular structures containing genes, i.e., biological material that creates individuality.
The process of developing a behavior pattern through a series of repeated experiences.
Activation of the cerebral cortex, a structure of the brain that is responsible for higher intellectual functioning, information processing, and decision making.
A theory of criminality based on the incorporation of psychological learning theory and differential association with social learning theory. Criminal behavior, the theory claims, is learning through associations and is contained or discontinued as a result of positive or negative reinforcements.
Dizygotic twins (DZ)
Fraternal twins, who develop from two separate eggs fertilized at the same time.
The part of the psyche that, according to psychoanalytical theory, governs rational behavior; the moderator between the superego and the id.
According to Hans Eysenck, a dimension of the human personality; describes individuals who are sensation-seeking, dominant, and assertive.
Fundamental Psycholegal Error
An error in thinking or mistaken belief that occurs when we identify a cause for criminal behavior and then assume that if naturally follows that any behavior resulting from that "cause" must be excused by law.
A condition that may occur in susceptible individuals when the level of blood sugar falls below an acceptable range, causing anxiety, headaches, confusion, fatigue, and aggressive behavior.
The part of the personality that, according to psychoanalytical theory, contains powerful urges and drives for gratification and satisfaction.
Minimal Brain Dysfunction (MBD)
An attention-deficit disorder that may produce such asocial behavior as impulsivity, hyperactivity, and aggressiveness.
Monozygotic (MZ) Twins
Identical twins, who develop from a single fertilized egg that divides into two embryos.
A personality condition marked by low self-esteem, excessive anxiety, and wide mood swings (Esyenck).
In criminology, a theory of criminality that attributes delinquent behavior to a consequence that is either so overbearing that it arouses excessive feelings of guilt or so weak that is cannot control the individual's impulses.
A condition in which a person appears to be psychologically normal but in reality has no sense of responsibility, shows disregard for truth, is insincere, and feels no sense of shame, guilt, or humiliation (also called "sociopathy").
A mental illness characterized by a loss of contact with reality.
A dimension of the human personality describing individuals who are aggressive, egocentric, and impulsive (Eysenck).
Social Learning Theory
A theory of criminality that maintains that delinquent behavior is learned through the same psychological processes as non delinquent behavior, e.g., through reinforcement.
In psychoanalytical theory, the conscience, or those aspects of the personality that threaten the person or impose a sense of guilt or psychic suffering and thus restrain the id.
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Ch 1 Criminology Terms
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