Modern Western Civilization

Terms in this set (87)

Scientific Thought in 1500
European ideas about the universe were based on Aristotelian-medieval ideas
Ten crystal spheres moved around a motionless earth fixed at the center of the universe and beyond the spheres was heaven
Earth was made up of four imperfect, changeable elements: air, fire, water, earth
A uniform force moved an object at a constant speed and the object would stop as soon as that force was moved
Aristotle's ideas about astronomy and physics were accepted with minor revisions for two thousand years
Offered an understandable, commonsense explanation for what the eye saw
Suited Christianity because it positioned human beings at the center of the universe and established a home for God (science in this period was primarily a branch of theology)
Galileo Galilei was a Florentine that challenged all the old ideas about motion
Greatest achievement was the elaboration and consolidation of the experimental method (conducted controlled experiments to find out what actually did happen instead of speculating)
Formulated the law of inertia: an object continues in motion forever unless stopped by some external force (rest is not the natural state of objects)
Tried for heresy by the papal Inquisition in 1632 and forced to recant his views after openly criticizing the traditional views of Aristotle and Ptolemy in his Dialogue on the Two Chief Systems of the World
The traditional religious and theological world-view, which rested on determining and accepting the proper established authority, was beginning to give way in certain fields to a critical, modern scientific method (greatest accomplishment of the entire scientific revolution)
Francis Bacon- Empiricism Francis Bacon advocated empirical, experimental research
Greatest early propagandist for the new experimental method
Formalized the empirical method into the general theory of inductive reasoning known as empiricism
Helped provide a radically new and effective justification for private and public support of scientific inquiry
Rene Descartes- Logic?? (1596-1650) French philosopher and mathematician who lived from 1596-1650. His discourse on Method states that all assumptions had to be proven on the basis of known facts. He wrote, "I think; therefore, I am." His method of questioning was built upon a strict, orderly logical reasoning. René Descartes stressed mathematics and deductive reasoning
Discovered analytical geometry
Greatest achievement was developing his initial vision into a whole philosophy of knowledge and science known as Cartesian dualism: his reasoning reduced all substances to "matter" and "mind," or to the physical and the spiritual
The modern scientific method is based on a synthesis of Bacon's inductive experimentalism and Descartes's deductive, mathematical reasoning
Isaac Newton- Synthesis English scientist and author of works explaining the law of universal gravitation and means of measuring motion. His work inspired the notion of natural and universal laws ordering and arranging life.
In his famous book, Principia (1687), Newton integrated the astronomy of Copernicus and Kepler with the physics of Galileo
Found a single explanatory system that comprehended motion both on earth and in the skies
United the experimental and theoretical-mathematical sides of modern science
The key feature in his synthesis was the law of universal gravitation: every body in the universe attracts every other body in the universe in a precise mathematical relationship, whereby the force of attraction is proportional to the quantity of matter of the objects and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them