Modern Western Civilization
Terms in this set (87)
In the late 1400s, this special tribunal of the Catholic Church was created to investigate the sincerity of Spanish Conversos, Jewish Spaniards who had recently converted to Christianity.
Thirty Years' War
Conflict over religion and territory and for power among European ruling families. Phase 1: Hapsburg armies from Austria and Spain crush Protestant princes. Czech leaders are all executed. Phase 2: Protestants hired a new leader, Gustavus Adolphus, he lands in Northern Germany and pushes Catholic forces South, he dies in battle. Phase 3: Remaining years dominated by French-specifically Cardinal Richelieu- all other European forces join in the fight
Peace of Westphalia
is the collective name for two treaties ending the Thirty Years' War that were signed by the Holy Roman Empire, minor German states, Spain, France, Sweden, and the Dutch Republic. It confirmed the principle of "cuius regio eius religio" (that a ruler's religion determined that of his country) introduced by the Peace of Augsburg, but mandated relative tolerance of other (Christian) faiths. It adjusted the borders of German states and strengthened their princes with respect to the Emperor and transferred most of Lorraine and some of Alsace to France.
in the 16th & 17th century, a period of new scientific inquiry, experimentation and discovery that resulted in a new understanding of the universe based on mathematical principles and led to the creation of the modern sciences, particularly astronomy and physics.
Geocentric v. Heliocentric models
Geocentric- Earth was the center of the universe.
Heliocentric- Sun was the center of the universe
believed that the sun was the center of the universe, and that the planets rotated around it in perfect circles.
Revolutions of the Heavenly Bodies
is the seminal work on the heliocentric theory of the Renaissance astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543).
Later that year, Tycho was appointed as the Imperial Mathematician to the Holy Roman Emperor in Prague. He later took on an assistant named Johannes Kepler to help him with his calculations. He was attempting to prove the validity of his new cosmological model with the Earth at the center of the Solar System. He had formulated his own model of the Solar System which was somewhat of a merger of the geocentric.
student of Brahes and author of Laws of Planetary Motion. Assistant to Brahe; used Brahe's data to prove that the earth moved in an elliptical, not circular, orbit; Wrote 3 laws of planetary motion based on mechanical relationships and accurately predicted movements of planets in a sun-centered universe; Demolished old systems of Aristotle and Ptolemy
improved the telescope, starry messenger, the inquisition, Scriptural, Aristotelian, and common-sense objections to heliocentrism, making the Copernican worldview a real possibility for cosmological explanation.
Cardinal R. Bellarmine
He sent a letter to galileo's friend
Galileo's book on jupiter and it's moons and how he improved the telescope
Dialogue on the Two Principle World Systems
The Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems (Dialogo sopra i due massimi sistemi del mondo) is a 1632 Italian-language book by Galileo Galilei comparing the Copernican system with the traditional Ptolemaic system.
English Royal Society
Founded in 1660, the Royal Society is the oldest scientific society in Great Britain and one of the oldest in Europe. It began earlier with small, informal groups that met periodically to discuss scientific subjects
He was the first known physician to describe completely and in detail the systemic circulation and properties of blood being pumped to the brain and body by the heart
Sir Francis Bacon
English politician and writer, advocated that new knowledge was acquired through an inductive reasoning process (using specific examples to prove or draw conclusion from a general point) called empiricism; rejected Medieval view of knowledge based on tradition, believed it's necessary to collect data, observe, and draw conclusions. This was the foundation of the scientific method. Developed the Scientific Method through the Inductive method (specific to general), wrote Novum Organum.
the theory that all knowledge is derived from sense-experience. Stimulated by the rise of experimental science, it developed in the 17th and 18th centuries, expounded in particular by John Locke, George Berkeley, and David Hume.
Skepticism, doubt everything
the theory that certain knowledge is impossible.
the greatest of all English scientists, was a mathematician and physicist. Newton was the first to understand the composition of light, the first to understand the composition of light, the first to develop a calculus, the first to build a reflecting telescope. Newton came to the conclusion that 1) that objects that are at rest stay at rest unless acted upon, 2) the changes I motion are proportional to force; 3) for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.
government in which power was consolidated in the hands of a divinely ordained monarch; typified by reverence for the monarch, weakening of representative institutions, and expansion of military.
Divine Right of Kings
Political theory that held the institution of monarchy had divine origin and that the monarch functioned as God's representative on earth.
James (Stuart) I
Formerly James VI of England (1603-1625). Stuart monarch who ignored constitutional principles and asserted the divine right of kings. Son of Mary Queen of Scots. Ruled England and Scotland together until 1625. Believed in divine-right rule and Angelicanism, which left to conflict with the largely Puritan Parliament. Closest relative to Elizabeth I at the time of her death.
Charles (Stuart) I
(1625-1649) Stuart king who brought conflict with Parliament to a head and was subsequently executed. Stuart son of James I and King of England, 1625-49. Beheaded by Roundheads at the end of the Civil War. Charles fought with the Puritan Parliament over his war expenses related to Scotland and Ireland, advancing his belief in the divine-right of kings, and marrying a Catholic, French princess.
(1601-1643, r. 1610-1643) House of Bourbon. Sometimes working with his chief minister, Cardinal Richelieu, and sometimes against, Louis XIII turned France into the pre-eminent European power during his reign. This was largely achieved via French victories in the Thirty Years' War. The Three Musketeers is set in the early years of his reign.
(1585-1642) Minister to Louis XIII. His three point plan (1. Break the power of the nobility, 2. Humble the House of Austria, 3. Control the Protestants) helped to send France on the road to absolute monarchy.
(1638-1715) Known as the Sun King, he was an absolute monarch that completely controlled France. One of his greatest accomplishments was the building of the palace at Versailles.
Jean Baptiste Colbert
An economic advisor to Louis XIV; he supported mercantilism and tried to make France economically self-sufficient. Brought prosperity to France.
An economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought
Palace constructed by Louis XIV outside of Paris to glorify his rule and subdue the nobility. The opulent French palace built by Louis XIV just outside of Paris. Versailles reperesented the ostentation and absolute power of his monarchy. Louis required all his important nobles to live there so he could control them.
a style of art which was characterized by a grand ornate design.
English Civil War
-james I believed in divine right and did not want to answer to parliament
-charles I angered parliament by not consulting them for domestic and international issues, entered england in 30 years war, ignored petition of right (imprisonment with due cause, tax with consent of parliament, no quartering, marital law)
-appointed catholics to political positions (adds distrust)
Charles I tried to advocate the divine right of kings and bring more absolutist policies to England. He was also seen as bringing too much Catholic influence to the Church of England. War broke out between Parliament's supporters(Roundheads)and the kings's supporters(Cavaliers). Later Charles I was tried and executed in 1649 as a"tyrant,traitor,murderer,and public enemy". Oliver Cromwell,leader of military,ruled England as "Lord Protector" until 1658.
Results- -charles I tried for treason and beheaded
-england ruled as military dictatorship called commonwealth/protectorate
-cromwell rules as dictator
English military, political, and religious figure who led the Parliamentarian victory in the English Civil War (1642-1649) and called for the execution of Charles I. As lord protector of England (1653-1658) he ruled as a virtual dictator.
William of Orange and Mary Stuart
King and Queen of England in 1688. With them, King James' Catholic reign ended. As they were Protestant, the Puritans were pleased because only protestants could be office-holders.
Glorious Revolution: Change of government in England in 1688-1689 when the Catholic monarch James II was replaced b the Dutch ruler William of Orange. Called "glorious" because it supposedly was accomplished without bloodshed.
War of the Spanish Succession
(1701-1714) Resulted from Louis XIV being offered the Spanish throne. Louis XIV then tried to put his grandson on the Spanish throne. All of Europe attacked France in this war. War fought by European powers after the death of the last Habsburg ruler of Spain in 1700, which left the throne to Louis XIV's grandson. Ended with the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713.
Peace of Utrecht
(1713) a series of Treaties concluding the Spanish succession - 1st series signed between France and other European powers; 2nd signed between Spain and other European powers -recognized Queen Anne as British soveriegn, Victor Amadeus II as king of Sicily, and Frederick I royal title -Spain gave Gibraltar to England; gave Britain largest commercial spoils (made Britain world leader)
Eighteenth-century period of scientific and philosophical innovation in which people investigated human nature and sought to explain reality through rationalism, the notion that truth comes only through rational, logical thinking. This period formed the basis of modern science.
Frederick the great of Prussia, Catherine the great of Russia, Joseph II of Austria
Peter the Great
(1672-1725) Russian tsar (r. 1689-1725). He enthusiastically introduced Western languages and technologies to the Russian elite, moving the capital from Moscow to the new city of St. Petersburg. Peter created a "well-ordered police state" that further legitimized and strengthened authoritarian rule in Russia. A testament to this lasting influence are the many public institutions in the Soviet Union and the Russian Federation, such as Moscow State University, which trace their origins back to Peter's rule.
Frederick William I of Prussia
"The Soldiers' King". Eliminated last traces of estates and local government. Established Prussian absolutism, made Prussia a military state. Built good bureaucracy to administer the country and foster economic development. Made great army through lifelong conscription in the reserves.
Frederick the Great of Prussia
this man started absolutism in Prussia by uniting the three provinces of Prussia under one ruler. He was the elector of Brandenburg-Prussia and was a member of the Hohenzollern family. In order to strengthen Prussia, he had to reduce in power the Noble Estates that were led by Junkers. He gained territories (esp. by the end of the 30 Year War), and he had a legacy of military values. He also adopted mercantile policies (a tax collecting system) that made Prussia rich
Maria Theresa of Austria
(Ruled 1740-1780) Daughter of Charled VI, who's inheritance of the Austrian throne sparked the War of the Austrian Succession. She survived the war only by giving Silesia to Frederick II of Prussia. Became heiress of Austria and her husband became Holy Roman Emperor. Mother of Joseph II.
Joseph II of Austria
(Ruled 1780-1790) Son of Maria Theresa; Holy Roman Emperor of Austria. Ordered a new unified code of laws; applauded suppression of the Jesuits; required Austrian bishops to swear submission to him;launched ambitious educational reforms; pushed for religious toleration; tried to remove the burdens of serfdom in his lands; and encourage agricultural innovation. (Most of his reforms fell apart after his death; resistant nobles pushed his brother to revoke them.) (Example of an enlightened despot.)
the Partition of Poland
Three separate divisions of Polish territory among Russia, Prussia, and Austria in 1772, 1793, and 1795; eliminated Poland as independent state; part of expansion of Russian influence in Eastern Europe
Thomas Hobbes/ Leviathan (Social Contract)
the agreement by which people define and limit their individual rights, thus creating an organized society or government. Wrote 'Leviathan.' The Leviathan argued that people came together to form a government for the most basic of all purposes: self preservation.
John Locke/ On Civil Government/ On Human Understanding
17th century English philosopher who opposed the Divine Right of Kings and who asserted that people have a natural right to life, liberty, and property.
Thinkers of the Enlightenment; Wanted to educate the socially elite, but not the masses; were not allowed to openly criticize church or state, so used satire and double-meaning in their writings to avoid being banned; Salons held by wealthy women also kept philosophes safe; They considered themselves part of an intellectual community, and wrote back and forth to each other to share ideas.
(1694-1778) French philosopher. He believed that freedom of speech was the best weapon against bad government. He also spoke out against the corruption of the French government, and the intolerance of the Catholic Church.
"The Spirit of the Laws"; tried to use scientific method to find natural laws that govern the social and political relationships of human beings; identified 3 types of governments: republics, despotism, and monarchies; invented separation of powers
Cesare Beccaria, On Crimes and Punishments
Believed that punishment should fit the crime, in speedy and public trials, and that capital punishment should be done away with completely
Denis Diderot, Encyclopédie
french philosopher, art critic, and writer. He was a co-founder, chief editor of the enlightment. He is also famous for Jacques le fatalise et son maitre which is a famous book written by Diderot himself.
(1712-1778) Swiss-French political philosopher; he valued the social contract and addressed the nature of man in his work On the Origin of Inequality. Philospher who published the "Social Contract." he posited that people are born good but are corrupted e education, laws, and society. He advocated a government based on popular sovereignty and was distrustful of other philosophes' suffocating conformity to "reason."
Informal gatherings, usually sponsored by middle-class or aristocratic women, that provided a forum for new ideas and an opportunity to establish new intellectual contacts among supporters of the Enlightenment in the 18th century. These informal gatherings gave intellectual life an anchor outside the royal court and church-dominated universities and afforded an opportunity to test ideas or present unpublished works.
aimed at a very cosmopolitan audience, attacked all traditional sources of authority in Europe.
Adam Smith, Wealth of Nations
1723- 1790; Scottish; "Wealth of Nations"; first economist; "laissez-faire capitalism"; not completely against govt regulation; pro free trade; let individuals pursue own interest; attacks mercantilism- peep do thinks out of self interest (baker); prices should be fluctuated on just supply & demand- not what gov't say it is; philosophe; not hard-core conservative (gov't does have part); didn't trust businessmen; economics should have an economic (not military) end goal; skilled workforce and strong infrastructure determines power of country- not how much stacks of gold you have; colonization is dumb
A major change in government that began in 1789; it brought an end to the absolute monarchy and a start to a representative government.
An assembly of representatives from all three estates to approve the new tax solution. The first estate was made up of clergy of Roman Catholic Church. The second estate made up of rich nobles. The third estate was the lower class and peasant farmers
Tennis Court Oath
National Assembly is locked out of meeting place for estates-general and meets in tennis court where they pledged to not leave until a constitution was made. Starts the first phase of the revolution.
Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
A decree granting basic rights to French citizens that was written in August 1789 after the French Revolution (1789-1799) as a preamble to France's constitution. This French document established the sovereignty of the nation, meaning that the king derived his authority from the people of the nation rather than from divine right or tradition. It proclaimed that "Men are born and remain free and equal in rights" and granted freedom of religion, freedom of press, equality in taxation, and the equality of all citizens before the law.
Civil Constitution of the Clergy
A body of legislation passed in July 1790 that redefined the relationship between the clergy and the state in France. It allowed for the confiscation of church property formerly used to support the clergy, replacing it with a guarantee of state salaries for clergymen instead. It also stipulated that parish priests and bishops be elected just like public officials. The National Assembly attempted to enforce it by requiring the clergy to take an oath, divided public opinion of the French Revolution (1789-99) and galvanized religious opposition
Jacobin leader who gains power in 1793 to become leader of Committee of Public. Set prices and rationed food along with raising an army to fight off invasion. Also a leader in the Committee of Public Safety during the French Revolution.
A radical phase in the French Revolution (1789-1799) led by Robspierre, which sought to create a "republic of virtue" in which the government would teach - or force - citizens to become virtuous republicans through a massive program of reeducation. In 1973 the Committee of Public Saftey was established to direct this effort, using the guillotine to suppress dissent; tens of thousands of ordinary citizens were executed. It ended in July 1794 when the National Convention rose up against Robspierre and sent him to the guillotine.
Compare and contrast the lifestyles of people in the rural countryside to the lifestyles of people in the towns of early seventeenth century Europe.
Rural Life- Division of time
Place: Parish & Manor
Costs: Tithes, Rents, and Taxes
Security of land tenure
Town Life- Division of time
Labor and wages
Manufacturing and agriculture
Need for surplus rural labor and ag. production
Describe the social hierarchy of seventeenth century Europe and the importance of the Great Chain of Being.
Great Chain of Being a description of the universe in which everything had a place, from God at the top to inanimate objects such as rocks, and stones at the bottom. For ordinary people the great chain of being expressed the belief that all life was interconnected, that every link was apart of a divinely ordered universe and was as necessary as every other.
The social structure was divided between nobles and commoners. The nobles was a legal status that conferred certain privileges on its holders and passed by inheritance from one generation to the next.
The hierarchy of prince, duke, earl, count, and baron was roughly standard. They had political privileges, and political participation in the deliberate bodies of the state.
Nobility were exempt from taxes.
Original role was to raise, equip, and lead troops into battle.
Gentry- received rents, and dues from tenants, administered their estates, and preserved the so-called moral economy. They wanted to be noble.
Then your rank depends on where you work, and if you are a citizen or not. Only males could be citizens.
Be able to recognize and distinguish between the basic routes of exploration of Portuguese and Spanish explorers.
agreement between portugal and spain, declaring that newly discovered lands to the west of an imaginary line in the atlantic ocean would belong to spain and newly discovered lands to the east would belong to portugal. made in 1494
Identify the basic religious divisions and their primary locations as they emerged among seventeenth century European Christians.
-Lutherns believe Salvation came through demonstration of faith not works, in a simple structure of the Church, people should have a direct connection to God/ there is no need for a Pope. People should be able to read and interpret the Bible on their own. People shouldn't have to pay to see the Relics.
Lutherism: break away from Catholicism lead by Luther which focused on personal interaction within biblical teachings, The religious doctrine that Martin Luther developed; it differed from Catholicismin the doctrine of salvation, which Luther believed could be achieved by faith alone, not by good works; Lutheranism was the first Protestant faith
Locations: Germany, Scandinavia, Sweden, Norway, Denmark,
-Anabaptists are A member of a radical movement of the 16th-century Reformation that viewed baptism solely as an external witness to a believer's conscious profession of faith, rejected infant baptism, and believed in the separation of church from state, in the shunning of nonbelievers, and in simplicity of life.
Locations: in small communities and towns in the Holy Roman Empire
-Calvinists are the theological system of John Calvin and his followers emphasizing omnipotence of God and salvation by grace aloneLocations: Scotland (presbyterians) Netherlands, Bohemia, France, (Huguenots), Switzerland
Be able to describe the causes of the Thirty Years' War, its key participants, and several outcomes of the Peace of Westphalia, 1648.
Thirty years war began when Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand ii of Bohemia attempted to curtail the religious activities of his subjects, sparking rebellion among protestants.
Between Protestants and Roman Catholics in Germany that engaged the Austrian Habsburgs and the german princes.
Involved the major powers of Europe w/ Sweden, France, Spain, and Austria all waging campaigns primarily on German soil.
War ended with a series of Treaties that made up the peace of Westphalia.
Outcomes of the Peace of Westphalia- Stated that all German states including Calvinist ones should determine their own religion. The states that made up the Holy Roman Empire were recognized as independent states. Bringing an end to the Holy Roman Empire as a political entity.
Be able to describe the key religious settlement that brought an end to religious wars in Europe by the mid-seventeenth century
Peace of Westphalia
ended 30 years war, the prince determines the religion of the people, calvinists could be apart of the holy roman empire. whatever religion the prince is the people must be too
Name the two primary dynasties that competed for dominance on the Continent during the seventeenth century and locate their possessions on a map.
hapsburgs and burbons
Name two alternatives to absolutism that emerged in Europe by the late seventeenth century and locate them geographically. How did these regimes differ from the absolutists?
constitutional monarchy (England, Holland, Sweden) rulers shared powerm in varying degrees, with other institutions of the state. In england it was parliament; In holland, the town oligarchies; in sweden; the nobility.
-alternative to the constitutional monarchy was the absolute monarchy. the main features of absolute monarchy were all designed to extend royal control. without government they were condemned to a life that was :solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short." to escape, individuals pooled their power and granted it to a ruler. rulers agreed to rule;subjects agreed to obey.
What happened to the Stuart kings of England when they tried to practice absolutism? What demands did Parliament make of James I and Charles I and how did these monarchs respond?
they were beheaded, both had problems with parliament.
What events in the reign of Charles I of England led to the English Civil War? What were three outcomes of the conflict?
England wanted to make scotland anglican, and so Scotlands presbyterian. Scot's invaded northern england (1638-1639). Charles l, tried to force religion on scotland but he failed.
King Charles asks parliament for money to get an army, and they said well you have to recognize our rights and needs, accept limits on their power, and limit his choice of ministers. The king said no, and tried to arrest some of the parliament which led to civil war.
Civil war between 1642-1647
Second civil war between 1648-1649
King executed (charles l)
What role did Oliver Cromwell play in England's government between 1650 and 1658? How did it differ from what came before?
-falls between charles 1st and charles II, 1600s, took over england 1650-1658, england being governed by a monarchy, known as the lord and protector. no fun allowed type of guy, puritanism,
Oliver Cromwell controlled the army that had defeated the royal forces and though called the "Protectorate," rule under Cromwell constituted military dictatorship,By infusing the army with his Puritan convictions, he molded the "New Model Army" and prepared a constitution, the Instrument of Government (1653) which gave executive power in a lord protector and a council of state and also provided for triennial parliaments and gave Parliament the sole power to raise taxes, Cromwell tore up the Instrument but proclaimed quasi-martial law by dividing England into twelve military districts, each governed by a major general, Cromwell tolerated Catholicism except Roman Catholics, crushed rebellion in Ireland, regulated the nation's economy (mercantilism) and enforced a Navigation Act (1651) that required English goods be transported on English ships, The government collapsed when Cromwell died in 1658 and restored monarchy.
What assurances made by Charles II allowed for the return of the Stuart kings to England in 1660? What suspicions did Parliament have of the restored monarchs?
The Restoration of 1660 re-established the reign of Charles II, houses of Parliament, established Anglican church, the courts of law, and the system of local governments but failed to resolve attitude of Puritans, Catholics, and dissenters from the state church and what was to be the relationship between the king and the Parliament.
- The relationship between the Parliament and Charles II was due to the king's appointment of a council of five men who served both as his major advisers and as members of Parliament, thus acting as liaison agents between the executive and the legislature (body known as the "Cabal" and was the ancestor of the cabinet system)
-Harmony existed on the understanding that Charles would summon frequent parliaments and that Parliament would vote him sufficient revenues
Describe the Glorious Revolution and identify at least two significant changes to England's monarchy and parliament that resulted from it. How did John Locke contribute to these changes?
Description- Negotions between James II and William, prince of Orange, husband of Mary Stuart, Jame's oldest daughters. In 1688, William landed in England with a small force. Without support, James II fled to France, the English throne was declared vacant, and William and mary were proclaimed king and queen of England. There was little bloodshed and little threat to social disorder, and the event soon came to be called the Glorious Revolutions.
-2 significant changes- James is kicked out of power, William and Mary come to power, limited monarchy comes to power, new rights are recognized
John Locke- The events in England reversed a trend toward increasing power on the part of the stuarts. This episode of resistance resulted in the development of a unique form of government, which, a century later, spawned dozens of imitators. John Locke was heir to the entry old debate on resistance, and he carried the doctrine to a new plateau. In Two Treatises On Government (1689) Locke developed the contract theory of government. Political society was a compact that individuals entered into freely for their own- well being. It was designed to maintain each person's natural rights: life, liberty and properties. Natural rights were inherent in individuals; they could not be given away. The contract between rulers and subjects was an agreement for the protection of natural rights.
Identify several policies Cardinal Richelieu developed during the reign of Louis XIII of France and his purpose for doing so.
Apart of clergy, catholic leader of france, with louis XIII, supportive of absolutest, Richelieu envisioned ????Enemy were the nobles
The french academy- maintaing a common language
(1585-1642) Minister to Louis XIII. His three point plan (1. Break the power of the nobility, 2. Humble the House of Austria, 3. Control the Protestants) helped to send France on the road to absolute monarchy.
Who was the Sun King and how did he dominate France's nobles? Describe the role played by Jean Baptiste Colbert in that government.
Sun King- Louis XIV
How did he dominate- Louis XIV separated power from status and grandeur using court ceremonies, entertainment, spies, and informers to reduce the power of the nobility. He ruled from 1643-1715, the longest reign in French history. He constructed Versailles, believed in divine right of kings, engaged in many wars, and established absolutism in France.
Jean Bapsiste Colbert in that government- Louis XIV named Jean Baptiste Colbert, the controller general of finances and later came to manage the entire royal administration and became chief financial minister
-Colbert using his principle theory, insisted that the French sell abroad and buy nothing back and used subsidies for domestic industries, tariffs, and policies to attract foreign artisans in order to make France self-sufficient and to boost exports
-Colbert's most important work was the creation of a powerful merchant marine to transport French goods and promoted colonization of French territories in N. A.
How did the conflicts between Louis XIV of France and William of Orange of the Dutch Republic (aka William III of England) affect Europe in the late 1600s and early 1700s?
Louis XIV made territorial gains in the Low Countries and Lorraine before his armies could not fight anymore (William of Orange became king of England, joined the League of Augsburg, composed of Habsburg, Spain, and Sweden, and Louis could not compete against the Bank of Amsterdam and the Bank of England after 1694
What sparked the War of Spanish Succession?
The War of the Spanish Succession involved the dynastic question of the succession to the Spanish throne; King Charles II of Spain died in 1700
-Charles passed the Spanish throne to Louis XIV's grandson (Philip of Anjou); England, Holland, Austria, and Prussia united against France to preserve the European balance of power and check the French expansion in the Americas, Asia, and Africa (Louis XIV reneged on the treaty and accepted the will)
Identify three Eastern European regimes that emerged as absolutists in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries.How were monarchs in these three countries influenced by Enlightenment thought?
Russia- Catherine the great- gets away from tourture and capital punishment
Austria- Joseph II- gets rid of serfdom
enlightened thinking- religious freedom
Recap the changes in astronomy that occurred between the 1530s and 1630s that inspired future generations of natural philosophers, mathematicians, experimental philosophers, etc. What did Galileo Galilei challenge the Catholic Church to do?
Scientific Thought in 1500
European ideas about the universe were based on Aristotelian-medieval ideas
Ten crystal spheres moved around a motionless earth fixed at the center of the universe and beyond the spheres was heaven
Earth was made up of four imperfect, changeable elements: air, fire, water, earth
A uniform force moved an object at a constant speed and the object would stop as soon as that force was moved
Aristotle's ideas about astronomy and physics were accepted with minor revisions for two thousand years
Offered an understandable, commonsense explanation for what the eye saw
Suited Christianity because it positioned human beings at the center of the universe and established a home for God (science in this period was primarily a branch of theology)
Galileo Galilei was a Florentine that challenged all the old ideas about motion
Greatest achievement was the elaboration and consolidation of the experimental method (conducted controlled experiments to find out what actually did happen instead of speculating)
Formulated the law of inertia: an object continues in motion forever unless stopped by some external force (rest is not the natural state of objects)
Tried for heresy by the papal Inquisition in 1632 and forced to recant his views after openly criticizing the traditional views of Aristotle and Ptolemy in his Dialogue on the Two Chief Systems of the World
The traditional religious and theological world-view, which rested on determining and accepting the proper established authority, was beginning to give way in certain fields to a critical, modern scientific method (greatest accomplishment of the entire scientific revolution)
What were the contributions of Francis Bacon, Rene Descartes, and Isaac Newton to scientific inquiry in the seventeenth century?
Francis Bacon- Empiricism Francis Bacon advocated empirical, experimental research
Greatest early propagandist for the new experimental method
Formalized the empirical method into the general theory of inductive reasoning known as empiricism
Helped provide a radically new and effective justification for private and public support of scientific inquiry
Rene Descartes- Logic?? (1596-1650) French philosopher and mathematician who lived from 1596-1650. His discourse on Method states that all assumptions had to be proven on the basis of known facts. He wrote, "I think; therefore, I am." His method of questioning was built upon a strict, orderly logical reasoning. René Descartes stressed mathematics and deductive reasoning
Discovered analytical geometry
Greatest achievement was developing his initial vision into a whole philosophy of knowledge and science known as Cartesian dualism: his reasoning reduced all substances to "matter" and "mind," or to the physical and the spiritual
The modern scientific method is based on a synthesis of Bacon's inductive experimentalism and Descartes's deductive, mathematical reasoning
Isaac Newton- Synthesis English scientist and author of works explaining the law of universal gravitation and means of measuring motion. His work inspired the notion of natural and universal laws ordering and arranging life.
In his famous book, Principia (1687), Newton integrated the astronomy of Copernicus and Kepler with the physics of Galileo
Found a single explanatory system that comprehended motion both on earth and in the skies
United the experimental and theoretical-mathematical sides of modern science
The key feature in his synthesis was the law of universal gravitation: every body in the universe attracts every other body in the universe in a precise mathematical relationship, whereby the force of attraction is proportional to the quantity of matter of the objects and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them
What role did scientific societies and academies sponsored by European governments play in the scientific revolution and Enlightenment?
Impact of Academics: developments of civil discourse among scientists, communication/networking of scientific discovery/ secretary was a key leader of accademies, academy press.
Explain the important characteristics of the Enlightenment.
1. Reason: Logic which is absent of intolerance, bigotry and prejudice
2. Nature: Natural laws for everything
3. Happiness: Result of accepting nature's laws
4. Progress: could perfect human society
5. Liberty: freedom of thought
Identify and describe at least two types of public spaces that became popular during the enlightenment.
Salons- regular social gatherings held by wealthy women of Paris attended by philosophers, writers, artists, scientist and other great intellects to discuss ideas.