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Euro Ch14 info(some)
Terms in this set (37)
What three critical issues did early sixteenth century critics focus on?
clerical immoratlity, clerical ignorance, and clerical pluralism
the state of clerics holding at least one other job besides their job in the Church
How did Luther's personality and experience contribute to his reforming zeal?
Conscientious man, devoted to religion, had a doctorate, was a friar, professor at Whittenburg. Doctorate allowed him to teach and justified his reforms
What is an indulgence
Temporary forgiveness of sins by using the Treasury of Merits
Explain the sequence of events that led Luther to post his Ninety- Five Theses
Troubled that people were PURCHASING indulgences
What were Luther's arguments?
Indulgences undermined the seriousness of penance, competed with Gospel preachings, downplayed charity
What was the purpose of the Diet of Worms
To force Luther to recant his teachings, he didn't but he announced to never accept the authority of the Catholic Church
Who was Ulrich Zwingli? Describe his beliefs.
Swiss priest, humanist, admirer of Erasmus. Life rests on scripture. Didn't like Mass, indulgences, monasticism, clerical celibacy
Describe the 4 things all Protestants agreed on.
Salvation comes from Faith, vocations have equal merit, church not fixed in place or person, religious authority resides in the Word of God and ONLY in the Word of God
Dogma that when consecration occurs, bread and wine becomes the Body and Blood of Christ-who is then fully present in the Mass
What was the appeal of Luther's religious ideas?
Scripture central to faith, simpler, based off faith
What were the causes of the Peasants' Revolt of 1525 - 1526
-nobles seized village common lands
-new rents on manorial properties
-new services on peasants
What was Luther's position in the Peasants' Revolt?
Blasted nobles (initially), sided with peasants, late stopped his support to prevent bloodshed
How did the role of women in Protestant Churches change in the sixteenth century?
Could marry ministers (not seen as concubines
Why did Women's social and religious positions remain the same in most churches?
Not men = still treated poorly
What role did the HRE, Charles V, play in the Protestant Reformation?
supporter of Catholicism → holy wars→ protestants acquired army→ stopped fighting
What were the provisions of the Peace of Augsburg of 1555
Lutherans recognized as a religion→ each price decided between Catholic/Lutheran → no freedom of religion
How did King Henry VIII's marital problems lead to the creation of the Church of England?
Wanted divorce (wife didn't give him a son)→ asked Pope for a divorce→ said no→ formed his own church
What did Henry VIII do to the Catholic Church's property once he was head of the Church?
Took/ absconded Church's property and claimed it as his own
How much of Catholicism was retained by Henry VIII?
Changes: no pope, King was head of the Church, women could preach, married couples could divorce, ended monastic life
How did Elizabeth settle the religion issue in England?
Attend church or pay fine → didn't need to be loyal to the Church → She was governor, not head (improper)
What were John Calvin's major beliefs?
-Predestination (God knows who will be saved/damned)
-society ruled by religion
What was life like in Geneva under Calvin's rule?
Calvin's idealistic society (people burned/killed for heresy)
Where did Calvin's ideas spread?
How did Scotland adapt Calvin's ideas?
Nobles supported Protestantism→ removed Papal influence→ Church of Scotland ruled by Presbyters
What was the purpose of the Council of Trent?
Called to reform Church and attempt reconciliation with Protestant Churches
List the major positions taken by the Council on doctrine and reform
Scripture and tradition→ equal sources of truth and authority
What new religious orders were created during this period? List each new order and its purpose.
-Jesuits → missionaries / educators all over the world
-Ursulines → trained girls so that they could raise their children in Faith
French nobility the converted to Calvinism
What was the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre?
Catholic massacre of the Calvinists at a wedding in Paris on August 24, 1572 and then began a civil war
Why did the French nobility convert to Calvinism?
They wanted to differ from the Catholic King
Small group of moderate Catholic Calvinists → restoration of the monarchy could stop collapse
What was the significance of the Edict of Nantes?
Granted liberty of conscience and liberty of public worship to Huguenots in 150 towns
Describe the events of the Netherlands's struggle for independence.
Charles V inherits Netherlands → abdicated to incompetent son → Calvinism took over → riots occurred → Spanish tried to suppress riots → half remained Netherlands → other half Spanish Netherlands (Belgium)
How many people were tried for witchcraft?
Officially: between 100,000 and 200,000
How many were executed?
Executed: 40,000 to 60,000 people
What was the gender of the majority of executed witches?
Females were the majority executed
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