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EXSS 112 - Lecture 1
Terms in this set (90)
Anatomy studies the _____ and _____ of the body, while Physiology examines how the body _____.
form, structure, functions
Anatomists examine the relationships among _____ as well as the _____.
parts of the body, structure of individual organs.
Physiologists examines how organs and body systems function under both _____ and _____.
normal circumstances, abnormal circumstances
cannot be observed by the unaided eye
Microscopic anatomy has two main divisions:
study of body cells and their internal structure
the study of tissues
visible to the unaided eye, specimens dissected for examination
Systematic Anatomy (gross):
studies the anatomy of each functional body system
Regional Anatomy (gross):
examines all of the structures in a particular region of the body
Physiology - Details of Function (list):
cardiovascular, neuro, respiratory, reproductive, patho
functioning of heart, blood vessels, and blood
functioning of nerves and nervous system organs
functioning of respiratory organs
functioning of reproductive hormones and the reproductive cycle.
the relationship between the function of an organ system and disease or injury to the system
levels of organization - simplest to most complex:
chemical, cellular, tissue, organ, organ system, organismal
chemical level involves:
atoms (smallest units of matter) and molecules(one or more combined atoms), macromolecules (more complex molecules), and organelles (microscopic subunits in cells composed of macromolecules)
cellular level consists of:
Cells are basic units of _____ and _____ in organisms. They vary widely in structure, reflecting specializations needed. (for example, skeletal muscle cell is long and red blood cell is small and flattened)
Cellular level is formed from _____ and _____ from the _____ level.
atoms, molecules, chemical
tissue level consists of:
groups of similar cells performing common functions
types of tissues:
epithelial, connective, muscle, nervous
covers exposed surfaces and lines body cavities
protects, supports, and binds structures and organs
conducts nerve impulses
organ level consists of:
two or more tissue types performing specific functions
example of organ:
small intestine composed of all four tissue types, working to process and absorb digested nutrients
organ system contains:
related organs that work together to digest food, absorb nutrients, and expel waste products
the highest level of structural organization:
all body functions working interdependently in an organism, the living being
All organisms must exchange nutrients, wastes, and gases to carry on _____
Multi-cellular organisms require _____ to perform multiple activities.
11 organ systems:
integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, lymphatic, respiratory, urinary, digestive, male and female reproductive system
forms external body covering, protects deeper tissues from injury, synthesizes vitamin D, site of cutaneous receptors (pain, pressure) (sweat and oil glands)
protects and supports body organs, provides a framework for muscles, blood cells formed within bones, stores minerals
locomotion (movement), maintains posture, produces heat
fast-acting control system, responds to internal and external changes
glands secrete hormone that regulate growth, reproduction, and nutrient use
blood vessels transport blood, then blood carries oxygen, carbon dioxide, and carries nutrients and wastes; heart pumps blood through blood vessels
lymphatic system / immunity:
picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels, disposes of debris, houses while blood cells (lymphocytes), and mounts attack against foreign substances in body
keeps blood supplied with oxygen, removes carbon dioxide, gas exchange occurs through walls of air sacs in lungs
breaks down food into absorbable units, indigestible product eliminated as feces
eliminates nitrogenous wastes, regulates water, electrolyte, and acid-base balance
male and female reproductive systems:
overall function is to produce offspring, testes produce sperm and male sex hormones, ovaries produce eggs and female sex hormones, mammary glands produce milk
Anatomists use a specific position of the body as a point of common reference called _____.
the anatomic position
_____ and _____ are used to examine internal anatomy and describe relative position of body parts.
slice or cut to expose internal anatomy
imaginary, flat surface passing through the body
three major planes:
coronal (frontal), transverse, midsagittal (sagittal)
coronal (frontal) plane:
vertical plane dividing the body into anterior (front) and posterior (back)
horizontal plane dividing the body into superior (top) and inferior (bottom); also called the cross-sectional plane
midsagittal (sagittal) plane:
vertical plane dividing the body into equal left and right halves
in front of, toward the front surface
in back of, toward the back surface (example: the heart is posterior to the sternum)
at the back side of the human body (example: the spinal cord is on the dorsal side of the body)
at the belly side of the human body (example: the belly button is on the ventral side of the body)
closer to the head (example: the chest is superior to the pelvis)
closer to the feet (example: the stomach is inferior to the heart)
at the head end (example: the shoulders are cranial to the feet)
at the rear or tail end (example: the buttocks are caudal to the head)
toward the nose or mouth (example: the frontal lobe of the brain is rostral to the back of the head)
toward the mid-line of the body (example: the lungs are medial to the shoulders)
away from the mid-line of the body (example: the arms are lateral to the heart)
on the inside, internal to another structure (example: the heart is deep to the rib cage)
on the outside (example: the skin is superficial to the biceps brachii muscle)
closer to point of attachment to trunk (example: the elbow is proximal to the hand)
farther away from point of attachment to trunk (example: the wrist is distal to the elbow)
the human body is partitioned into two main regions:
axial and appendicular region
includes the head, neck, trunk and forms the main vertical axis of the body (region)
composed of the upper and lower limbs
body cavities are named according to _____.
Describe the posterior aspect.
contains cavities completely encased in bone, physically and developmentally distinct from the ventral cavity
The posterior aspect is subdivided into the _____ and the _____.
cranial cavity, vertebral canal
cranial cavity (endocranium) of the posterior aspect:
formed by bones of the cranium, houses the brain
vertebral canal of the posterior aspect:
formed by the bones of the vertebral column, houses the spine
Describe the ventral cavity.
larger, anteriorly placed; does not completely encase organs in bone; lined with serous membranes, continuous layer of cells
The ventral cavity is partitioned into a superior _____ and an inferior _____.
thoracic cavity, abdominopelvic cavity
serous membranes composed of two layers:
parietal and visceral
parietal layer of serous membrane:
lines the internal surface of the body wall
visceral layer of serous membrane:
covers the external surface of organs (the viscera) within that cavity
Between membranes is a potential space, the _____.
Membranes secrete serous fluid. What is it?
liquid that serves as a lubricant, reduces friction caused by movement of organs against the body wall
median space in the thoracic cavity
thoracic cavity contains:
the heart, thymus, esophagus, trachea, and major blood vessels that connect to the heart
pericardium is associated with:
thoracic cavity? (heart)
pleura is associated with:
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