A&P Chapter 2: Chemistry Comes Alive

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Terms in this set (...)

Element
Simplest type of matter with unique chemical properties, composed of atoms of only one kind
Atom
Smallest particle of an element that has the chemical characteristics of that element; composed of atoms of only one kind (ex. the element carbon is composed of only carbon atoms)
(4) Major Elements Composing The Human Body
-Oxygen: 65%
-Carbon: 18.5%
-Hydrogen: 9.5%
-Nitrogen: 3.2%
Atomic Number
Equal to number of protons in each atom, which is equal to the number of electrons
Mass Number
Protons + Neutrons
Isotopes
2 or more forms of the same element with the same number of protons and electrons but different number of neutrons
Radioisotopes
Isotopes that decompose to more stable forms -- Atom loses various subatomic particles
Molecule
General term for 2 or more atoms bonded together
Compound
Specific molecule that has 2 or more different kinds of atoms bonded together
Cation
Positively charged ion
Anion
Negatively charged ion
Hydrogen Bond
Occurs when a positively charged H of one molecule is attracted to a negatively charged O, N, or F of another molecule
Electrolytes
Chemical substances that ionize and dissociate in water and are capable of conducting an electrical current
(3) Important acids in the human body
-HCl (hydrochloric acid)
-HC2H3O2 (Acetic acid, HAc)
-H2CO3 (carbonic acid)
(1) Important base in the human body
Bicarbonate (HCO3-)
Solution
Homogenous mixtures of components with very small solutes
Colloids
Heterogenous mixtures of components with larger solutes (scatter light)
Suspensions
Heterogenous mixtures with very large solutes (may settle out, do scatter light)
Oxidation
Loss of an electron by a substance
Reduction
Gain of an electron by a substance
Potential Energy
Energy stores in chemical bonds; energy could do work if it were released -- breaking chemical bonds releases energy
Kinetic Energy
Does work and moves matter
Mechanical Energy
Energy resulting from the position or movement of objects
Chemical Energy
Form of potential energy in the chemical bonds of a substance
Heat Energy
Energy that flows between objects of different temperatures
Enzyme
Biological catalysts that increase the rate of chemical reactions by lowering the activation energy necessary for reaction to begin
Inorganic Chemistry
Mostly concerned with noncarbon-containing substances
Organic Chemistry
Concerned with molecules containing carbon, especially the biomolecules of life (carbs, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids)
Carbohydrates
-Composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
-Energy source, storage, structure
Lipids
-Composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
-relatively insoluble in water
-protection, insulation, physiological regulation, component of cell membranes, energy source
Proteins
-Composed of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen
-regulate processes, aid transport, structure, energy
(4) Structural levels of proteins
1. Primary: linear sequence of amino acids
2. Secondary: How primary amino acids interact with each other (helices and sheets)
3. Tertiary: how secondary structures interact
4. Quaternary: how 2 or more different polypeptides interact with each other
Denaturation
Globular proteins unfold and lose their functional 3-D shape
Nucleic Acids
-composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus
-composed of a nitrogen base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group
Purines
Adenine (A) and Guanine (G)
Pyrimidines
Cytosine (C), Thymine (T), Uracil (U)
DNA
Genetic material of cells copied from one generation to the next -- holds genetic blueprint for synthesis of all proteins