144 terms


An architect is designing apartments and wants them to be soundproof. She asks a psychologist what the smallest amount of sound is that can be heard. Her question is most related to
the absolute threshold
Taylor dreamed she was hearing a phone ringing. Taylor is a telephone receptionist who spends most of her day answering the phone at work. This is an example
day residue
Which of the following are the two integrated parts of the autonomic nervous system?
sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems
When you are paid $1 instead of $2, it is a big deal. When you are paid $91 instead of $92, the difference feels less painful. This is similar to
Weber's Law
In terms of states of consciousness, hypnosis involves a
sense of deep relaxation and susceptibility to suggestion
After finishing a psychology test, you try to relax by engaging in some mediation techniques. Doing these exercises should increase the response of the ________ nervous system and result in slower heart and respiration rates and muscular tension
Since most non-primate mammals have no color vision, you would expect their eyes to have
mostly rods
Which drug is not physically addictive but can cause psychological withdrawal symptoms, decreased cognition efficiency, and weakened immune system with prolonged use?
The primary function of dendrites is to
receive incoming info
Sensory information is interpreted through the process of
What do drugs, mediation, and intense religious experiences or sexual orgasms have in common?
they produce altered states of consciousness
Which division of the nervous system is composed of all the nerves that branch from the brain and spinal cord?
peripheral nervous system
When sound waves enter the ear canal, they first
vibrate the ear drum
Personal expectations, social situations, and moods are factors that may
influence an individual's response to drugs
Drugs that create a sense of relaxation and lowered inhibitions by reducing the activity of the central nervous system are called
Are neurons physically connected to one another?
No, they are separated by a synaptic gap
The sleep disorder of narcolepsy occurs when individuals
fall unexpectedly into a deep sleep in the middle of daily activities
If you have ever been struck in the back of the head and saw stars or flashes of light, cells were stimulated in your _____ lobe.
The main function of sensory receptor cells is to
receive outside forms of energy and translate into neural impulses
A researcher who places closely spaced electrodes on her subjects' heads in order to study brain activity is using the ______ technique
The semi-wakeful period that proceeds light sleep is called
the hypnagogic state
The receptors for vision are located in the
It is the _____ cells that transports nutrients from the blood vessels to neurons
Is the peripheral nervous system part of the central nervous system?
No, but the peripheral nervous system is divided into two subsystems
The sense of smell is called ______, and the sense of taste is called _____
olfaction and gustation
Which hypothesis states that abnormal behavior is similar to normal behavior but is more severe and harmful form of it?
Continuity hypothesis
Ever since Harry was nearly beaten to death by his fellow inmates in prison, his life has been miserable. He still has vivid memories of the episode that he can't escape. Harry's symptoms sound most like?
posttraumatic stress disorder
Millie goes to the doctor at least twice a month and is always worried about becoming ill even though the doctor assures her that her health is perfect. Millie's pattern resembles
Brenda is feeling stress because she is afraid of losing her job due to downsizing. What is the source of Sigrid's stress?
In terms of therapeutic approaches, which approach is based on the premise that people possess the capacity to solve their own problems if given help and a safe environment to confront what is troubling them?
Client-centered therapy
Over the last two semesters, Henry has been experiencing sharp chest pains just before a test is scheduled. He has had a thorough medical exam but no physical cause for pain has been found. Henry most likely has
What characteristic does dissociative amnesia and dissociative fugue have in common?
both involve memory loss
Unhealthy feelings, no energy, poor appetite, and low motivation are characteristics of someone suffering from
major depression
To relax the patient's conscious control and interpret unconscious symbols through therapy describes the approaches of a
If one of your friends was experiencing an intense euphoria that is quite enjoyable, they may be in the midst of an episode of
Which of the following would be the best example of an approach-approach conflict?
Choosing between one good job offer and a second good job offer
Which type of schizophrenia is most likely to involve disturbances in body movements?
The therapy based on the assumption that abnormal behavior is due to faulty ways of thinking and believing is
cognitive therapy
Which personality disorder includes individuals who have no interest in social contact?
Schizoid personality disorder
When the occurrence of an event causes an individual's ability to cope to be exceeded, _____ occurs.
Edwin is afraid to ride in elevators, and he quit his job because he was being moved to the 27th floor of his office building. He would probably be classified as exhibiting a
specific phobia
Stress arising from the threat of negative events is called
Abnormal behavior is defined in terms of _____ rather than ____.
Which type of therapist would most likely use free association and dream analysis to explain unconscious motivations?
A psychoanalyst
" I realize that everyone is taling about me, mostly behind my back. Yesterday I read the paper and found that all the reporters were writing specifically about me. I found coded messages in sever articles, which of course only I could decipher." Which disorder is the person in this question most likely to be diagnosed with?
Paranoid Schizophrenia
When Jane said "I just feel like my father never listened to me; he just blocked me out like I wasn't significant enough to be considered," her counselor said, "You sound hurt and angry that your father didn't pay more attention to you." The therapist was using client-centered technique of ______
Mary arrived at work one day in uncommonly good spirits. She told her coworkers she has a terrific idea about starting her own business and that she would soon be rich. She quit her job the same day. Several weeks later her former coworkers learned she was feeling very down and would not see anyone. Mary most likely has _______
bipolar disorder
When a therapist helps a person overcome a phobia by gradually accompanying the patient from mildly fearful event to more fearful events, the therapist is using the ______ technique.
Graded exposure
The presence of two or more powerful motives, both highly attractive goals, but only one of which can be attained, are the ingredients for _____
If your friend has an unrealistic sense of self-importance, is preoccupied with her fantasies of self-success, requires constant praise and attention, exploits others, and feels entitled to special consideration, then she is most likely possesses ____ personality disorder.
Jack was sitting, reading a book when all of a sudden he felt he was "losing his mind." His heart beat faster and he began to sweat and tremble. His behavior mostly resembles _______ disorder.
panic anxiety
The strange beliefs held by schizophrenias are called
In which school of thought did researchers ask participants to report sensations they were experiencing?
One advantage of naturalistic observation is that the researchers can examine behavior
in a setting where subjects are comfortable and relaxed
In psychology, William James was highly influential in developing the school of though known as
What do the survey technique and naturalistic observation have in common?
They are both descriptive research methods
Followers of Albert Bandura's viewpoint would best be described as
social learning theorists
When both the researchers and the participants do not know who is in the experimental group do not know who is in the control group, this tip of study is known as
double blind
According to Sigmund Freud, where do motives reside?
In the unconscious mind
The most important aspect of study to a humanistic psychologist is
What is the major difference between psychologists and psychiatrists?
Psychiatrists are medical doctors
The variable that the researchers controls or manipulates is called the
independent variable
Evidence gathered from publicly observable behavior is known as _____ evidence
Which of the following would be an operational definition designed to measure the amount of violence on television
counting the number of homicides that occur on a TV show
A prediction based on a theory is known as a
Early in history of psychology Ebbinghaus, a memory researcher, used himself as the only research participant in his study. Given this information, what might cause you to be skeptical about his results?
the sample was probably not representative
One of the key characteristics os using a sample to learn about a larger group of beings is that the sample needs to be
Successful replication means that certain conclusions about behavior have been
repeated in multiple experiments
Variable X increases as Variable Y increases. Choose the correlation coefficient that best applies.
Rather than study the entire population of one group, you decide to focus on a subset of the group. This subset or subgroup is called a
If an early psychologist believed that the study of psychology should focus on the purpose of the mind and not on its raw elements, that psychologist most likely adhere to the school of thought known as
Which of the following is a potential disadvantage to using the survey method to answer questions of interest?
You can not se sure that answers are completely honest to questions about sensitive topics
Going to the shopping mall and watching people's behavior is an example of
descriptive research
Which of the following is a condition that is necessary for the ethical use of deception?
The deception must be revealed immediately after the study is over
A researcher using the correlation method is interesting in determining if there is a _____ relationship between two variables
The Department of Motor Vehicle recently completed a study that indicated there is a negative correlation between the age of the driver and the number of errors on the written driving test. This result means that
the older the driver, the fewer errors on the driving test
What does it mean when there is a zero correlation between two variables?
There is no statistical relationship between the two variables being studied
Which of the following is a key term in the definition of psychology?
A student is interested in studying college student success. His professor said " How will you measure it?" The student replies, "with the grade-point average at graduation." This instance specifying how college student success is to be measured is an example of
operational defintions
One advantage of formal experiments as compared to correlational studies is that formal experiments
can allow conclusions about cause and effect
A researcher has 40 people to assign into two groups: an experimental group and a control group. The researcher flips a coin: heads, experimental group and tails, control group. This is an example of
random assignment
You have a friend who appears to be having frequent anxiety attacks. From what you know about psychoanalytic school, what would a psychoanalyst say was at the heart of your friend's problem?
Unconscious Motives
Which of the following statistics describes the spread of a series of numbers?
Standard Deviation and Variance
Learning is defined as a ______ change in behavior due to ____.
relatively permanent; experience
You cannot remember much of what you learned in high school chemistry but you learn the same chemistry material in college much faster than you did in high school. Which method of memory evaluation does this illustrate?
Adler believed that the primary goal of personality development was to overcome
feelings of inferiority
A fleck of dust or dirt in your eye automatically causes the eye to produce tears to wash out the dirt. If this were part of a classical conditioning experiment, the fleck of dust or dirt would be labeled as the
unconditioned stimulus
Juliet refuses to go to the dance because she has just developed a pimple on her chin and she is sure everyone will talk about it behind her back. Her behavior illustrates
imaginary audience
A book designed to help people develop the personality features they desire suggests that readers pattern their lives on the model provided by someone they admire a great deal. The approach employed here is most compatible with
social learning theory
The study of "Little Albert" is a famous example of the study of learned that was conducted by
You are unable to remember your previous address because you tend to confuse it with your current address. This illustrates _____ interference.
Studies with the visual cliff suggest that infants
develop fear after they learn to crawl and experience a stumble or fall
The Rorschach inkblot test is based on the assumption that
people will project repressed feelings onto ambiguous stimuli
Reinforcers that are acquired through learning are called ______ reinforcers.
If Pam is rated as negligent, careless, and undependable on a personality test, which of the following personality traits may also be low?
Slot machines are set to pay off on the average of once in every 1,000,000 plays. This is an example of a _____ schedule of reinforcement.
Developmental psychology is best described as a study of
changes in behavior across the entire life span
A teenager has been grounded by her parents for not doing the dishes. Mom tells the teenager that if you do the dishes, then you will not be grounded anymore. This attempt at behavior change is best described as
negative reinforcement
The first stage of Erikson's personality development theory (occurring during infancy) is
trust vs. mistrust
In the stage theory of memory, the different stages are the
sensory register, short-term memory, and long-term memory stages
In Horney's theory of personality, anxious insecurity is most likely the result of
inadeguate parenting
According to the stage model of memory, which stage is the most permanent memory store?
Third Stage
According to research, the happiest older adult are those who
continue to be active in meaningful activites
When using positive reinforcement, the _____ should immediately follow the ____.
reinforcer; response
The phrase "seven plus or minus two" refers to the
storage capacity of short-term memory
In social learning theory, the perception that one is capable of doing what is necessary to reach one's goal is known as
Kubler-Ross identified the stages experienced by terminally ill patients and placed them in the order from start to finish of
denial, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance
You took a personality test, and the results indicated you were high in extraversion and moderate in agreeableness. These are examples of
the "Big Five" personality traits
Which of the following are the operations associated with the information-processing model of memory?
Input, storage, and retrieval
According to Frued, what are the three levels of consciousness?
Conscious, preconscious, unconscious
Let's say you have a hungry cat in your kitchen.......
conditioned response
Which of the following is an example of a control process?
A young boy feels guilty after looking through some adult sex magazines. In Freud's theory, the source of this guilt is the
Food, water, warmth, novel stimulation, physical activity, and sexual gratification are all examples of
primary reinforcers
If you see that a handsome guy in your history class at every sporting event and you want to meet him under the best of circumstances, introduce yourself
just after your team has won a game
When considering how OTHER people behave, we tend to ____ the effects of the social situation and _____ the importance of their personal characteristics
underestimate; overestimate
Asch asked college students to make judgements about lengths of lines. Confederates of the researcher purposely made errors, causing the research participant to do the same. This experiment illustrates the phenomenon of
Bob saw a child crying as if she had lost her mother and he assumed someone else in the crowd at the mall would take care of the situation. This is an example of
diffusion of responsibility
Howard Gardner's research indicates that
Intelligence includes more than just verbal and mathematical abilities
Groupthink tends to occur more often if the group is
very cohesive
How many phonemes are found in the word "bottom?"
When we use a certain cognitive process to reach a goal temporarily blocked by an obstacle, we are using
problem solving
When Brenda showed up at her supervisor's party, she noticed she had dressed rather formally and everyone else had dressed casually. She quickly went home, changed, and returned. Brenda's behavior is best explained by
If 10 people say that a color is blue when it actually is not. what is the 11th person likely to do?
say that the color is blue
If a child's mental age were higher than his or her chronological age, this would mean that
the child is brighter than normal
When an authority figure gives you specific instructions and you follow them to the letter, _____ has occurred.
What was the main finding of Zimbardo's study?
Social situations can have a powerful influence on behavior
In attribution, people display a tendency to see their own behavior as externally causes and the behavior of others as internally causes. This tendency is known as the
fundamental attribution error
You have gone to your car after attending a basketball game with 12,000 fans present. You are unable to start your car. The bystander effect suggests that you will have a better chance of getting help if
few people are left in the parking lot
When a person feels anonymous and unidentifiable as a part of a group, _____ has occurred.
Other things being equal, when we are forming an impression about a person, we tend to
place a greater emphasis on negative characteristic than on positive
The intellectual processes by which information is obtained, transformed, stored, retrieved, and used is called
The willingness to consider unconventional approaches, to use imagination, and to attempt to develop new definitions of problems are central characteristics of
divergent thinking
A bicyclist finds that she can cycle faster during competition than when she is riding alone. This is likely to be caused by
social facilitation
The idea that there are an infinite number of possible things a person can say and that these sayings come from a finite number of words and rules of language is called
Mary was asked to contribute $100 to humanitarian relief by a Red Cross representative. After she said no the representative suggested any amount would be welcomed. Mary is likely to contribute the smaller amount because of the
door in the face technique
A teacher insists that diagramming complex sentences helps students comprehend the _____ of the English language
John is relatively certain that his company should hire a particular job candidate. If he feels even more strongly about the candidate after a company meeting, what has occurred?
How does crystallized intelligence differ from fluid intelligence?
Fluid intelligence shows age-related declines before crystallized intelligence
High school students taking the SAT.....
Stanley Milgram's studies on obedience indicate that
most people will obey inappropriate demands if they are received from an authority figure
When a test is given to a large group of individual's varying in age, sex, background, and so on to form a basis for interpreting an individual's score, what is being calculated?
The general prejudgement of a person based on inappropriate criteria is formally called
In order to be classified as mentally retarded, a person must have an IQ score below