Terms in this set (90)
uses biology, psychology, and social factors in relation to each other along with behavioral risk factors in order to gain insight on a (health) situation.
number of cases of a particular disease/illness at a certain point in time
The number of deaths caused by a particular disease, illness or other environmental factor.
The number or proportion of cases of a particular disease or condition present in a population at a given time.
The number of new cases of a disease per population at risk in a given period of time
- aimed at reducing the prevalence of mental and physical disorders by decreasing the incidence of new case
-focuses on early identification of individuals or communities experiencing illness, providing treatment, and conducting activities that are geared to prevent worsening health status
Aims to prevent the long term consequences of a chronic illness or disability and to support optimal functioning
sudden onset, shorter term
Disorders that are characterized by slow onset and long duration. They are rare in early adulthood, they increase during middle adulthood, and they become common in late adulthood.
The study of the causes of disease
The branch of medical science concerned with the incidence, distribution, and control of diseases that are prevalent among a population at a specific time and are produced by some special causes not generally present in the affected locality.
compulsive, out of control use despite the negative consequences, chronic, relapses, changes the way the brain works
Physiological state of neuroadaptation resulting from repeated administration of a drug, necessitating continued administration to prevent withdrawal
the presence of one or more disorders (or diseases) in addition to a primary disease or disorder, or the effect of such additional disorders or diseases.
A chemical that mimics the action of a neurotransmitter.
compensatory responses to excessive stimulation, things that change physiologically in response to excessive stimulation (reversible)
brain-specific, "automatic" responses to cues (permanent)
The diminishing effect with regular use of the same dose of a drug, requiring the user to take larger and larger doses before experiencing the drug's effect.
inverted U-shape arousal curve
the amount of attention given by the amount of arousal invoked. Mid-level arousal is when the viewer is most attentive.
dose dependent relationship
relationship where change in amount, intensity, or duration of exposure is associated with a change in risk of a specified outcome
ability to produce the necessary or desired results in controlled circumstances
The benefits and use of the procedure under real world conditions
distribution of information and intervention materials of a specific public health practice, intent is to spread knowledge with associated evidence based intervention
set-point theory for weight
theory that everyone's body has a genetically determined range of weight their body tries to maintain
Stunkard Body Figure Scale
pictures of 7 female bodies that range from underweight and overweight
an index of weight in relation to height that is used to assess healthy body weight; divide body weight in kilograms by height in meters squared kg/m
allows researchers to evaluate many research studies on the same topic, measures overall size of the effect of the variable in the study
correlational research study with repeated observations with same variables over long periods over time
person's belief whether the recommended action step will actually avoid threat
Refers to one's belief about one's ability to perform behaviors that should lead to expected outcomes.
The Health Belief Model
Social Cognitive Model
Self-efficacy (ones perceived ability to take the action necessary to achieve the desired effects or outcomes) beliefs, goals, outcome expectations, and perceived barriers or aids involves in enacting a behavior jointly influence human motivation, action, and health.
Theory of Planned Behavior
An eating disorder characterized by extreme thinness, intense fear of gaining weight, distorted body image, and disturbed eating behaviors.
A disorder characterized by frequent episodes of intense overeating, followed by compensatory behavior: purging, excessive dieting, excessive exercise.
Eating Disorder (not otherwise specified)
An individual demonstrates some signs of both anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa but does not fully meet the criteria for either. How would this condition be characterized?
Paradox of Control
We (a) have complete control over our health but (b) are vulnerable to unpredictable factors
Drinking five or more alcoholic drinks in one sitting (men)
Drinking four or more alcoholic drinks in one sitting (women)
Common community health strategy designed to reduce the harm of substance abuse to family, individuals, community and society
Small sustained changes in energy intake or expenditure will produce large long term weight gain
Setting realistic goals in obesity treatment is important because otherwise patients will become frustrated and lose less weight.
Large rapid weight loss is associated with poorer long-term weight outcomes than is slow gradual weightloss
Assessing the stage of change or diet readiness is important in helping patients who seek weight loss treatment
Physical Education classes in their current format play an important role in preventing childhood obesity
Breastfeeding is protective against childhood obesity
A bout of sexual activity burns 100 to 300 kcal for each person involved
Regularly eating (vs. skipping) breakfast is protective against obesity
Early childhood is the period during which we learn exercise and eating habits that influence our weight throughout life
Eating more fruits and vegetables will result in weight loss or less weight gain.
Weight cycling (i.e. yo-yo dieting) is associated with increased mortality
Snacking contributes to weight gain
The built environment in terms of sidewalk and park availability influence obesity
Although genetic factors play a large role, heritability is not destiny; calculations show that moderate environment changes can promote as much weight loss as the most efficacious pharmaceutical agents available.
Diets very effectively reduce weight, but trying to go on a diet or recommending that someone go on a diet generally does not work well in the long term.
Regardless of body weight or weight loss, an increased level of exercise increases health
Physical activity or exercise in sufficient doses aids in long term weight maintenance
Continuation of conditions that promote weight loss promotes maintenance
For overweight children, programs that involve the parents and the home setting promote greater weight loss or maintenance
Provision of meals and use of meal replacement products promote greater weightloss
Study of social, behavioral, cognitive and emotional factors that influence the:
Maintenance of health
Development and course of illness and disease
Patients and family response to illness and disease
Recognition that physical health affects psychological well-being and vice versa
We overestimate personal control to compensate fear of having little control
We (a) have complete control over our health but (b) are vulnerable to unpredictable factors.
effects of control paradox
Blaming the victim
A world of dichotomy
Hypersensitivity to risk
Underemphazing social and environmental determinants of health
a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being, not merely the absence of disease and infirmity (WHO).
Biomedical disease is demonstrable pathophysiology or pathochemistry and is diagnosed by the demonstration of pathologic features. a matter of physics and chemistry.
Subjectively experienced phenomena. depends directly on phenomenological analysis of experiences suffering, one can be diseased without being ill (heart disease).
[An illness only becomes a disease when physical process is detected. ]
health belief model
Changes will occur if individuals perceive a threat to their well-being and believe that the benefits of engaging in behavior change outweigh the barriers of costs associated with that behavior.
Cues to action are viewed as promoting behavior change.
theories of reasoned action and planned behavior
For behavior change to occur individuals must experience a strong intention to change.
Behavior intentions determined by: expectancies that it will produce a certain outcome, attitudes, beliefs about what others will think, ones perception of control.
Target individuals key beliefs, values, and attitudes, and levels of perceived control.
transtheoretical model of change
Behavior change is a process with stages of change.
Tailoring interventions to individual's readiness to change based on their current stage will be more likely to produce change behaviors.
cigarette smoking practices
Smoking on college campuses has increased overall
No gender differences
Associated with being White, living in housing where smoking is permitted, alcohol/other substance use, and lower psychological sense of wellbeing. Also correlated with depression, coping strategies, and internal locus of control
current cigarette smoking practices
Men are more likely to smoke than women
Rates of smoking are highest amongst American Indians/Alaska Natives and people of mixed race
People with just a GED more likely to smoke than those with a graduate degree
SES: people living below the poverty line more likely to smoke
Lesbians, gays, and bisexuals more likely to smoke than heterosexual individuals
discrepancy perceived college smoking rate
College students believe the rate of smoking to be much higher amongst their peers than it truly is.
treatment goals for addiction
Achievement of abstinence
Prevention of relapse
binge drinking consequences
More likely to have unprotected sex, engage in unplanned sexual activity, to get in trouble with campus police, to damage property, get hurt/injured
Higher rate of dangerous driving
primary binge effects
consequences you experience when you're drinking
secondary binge effects
consequences you experience when someone else is drinking (i.e. being harassed by someone)
a group of college presidents and others advocating for lowering the minimum drinking age to 18 in order to avoid binge drinking and its negative social and health consequences amongst underage college students
The body is infinitely malleable AND vast rewards and happiness await a person who achieves the perfect body.
inherent in the search for a better body discussed by Brownell
taught us that restrictive diets caused periods of euphoria then depression, weight loss resulted in anger, neglect of self-care and work, and drawn out meal times. **still remained depressed even after gaining weight back gradually and obsessed with food
cultural body shape ideal 1
white and latina women were most dissatisfied with their bodies
cultural body shape ideal 2
white and latina women had a similar drive for thinness
cultural body shape ideal 3
latina women had the largest discrepancy between ethnic ideal and personal ideal
cultural body shape ideal 4
latinas had a higher drive for thinness due to acculturative stress whereas black women had higher bulimic symptoms because of acculturative stress
cultural body shape ideal 5
black women had close personal and ethnic ideals
Iatrogenic effect 2
Due to the activity of a physician or therapy. For example, an iatrogenic illness is an illness that is caused by a medication or physician.
when something well intentioned backfires
Cannot combine primary and secondary interventions
effective eating disorder prevention components
High risk participants, interactive format, over 15 years, female only/same sex, multiple sessions (dose-response), cognitive-behavioral content
weight bias in employment
Compared to job applicants with the same qualifications, obese applicants are rated more negatively and are less likely to be hired. Obese applicants are also perceived to be unfit for jobs involving face-to-face interactions.
weight bias in health care
In a study of 400 doctors, one of every three listed obesity as a condition to which they responded negatively. They associated obesity with non compliance, hostility, and poor hygiene
weight bias in education
Teachers say overweight students are untidy, more emotional, less likely to succeed at work, and more likely to have family problems