18 terms

6th grade Holt Science Heat and Energy

STUDY
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Temperature
a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in an object
Kinetic Energy
the energy of a moving object due to the object's motion
Heat
energy that is transferred between objects that are at different temperatures, from warmer objects to cooler objects until all of the objects are at the same temperature
Thermal energy
the total kinetic energy of the particles that make up a substance
Thermal expansion
the increase in volume resulting from an increase in temperature
3 ways of heat flows
conduction, convection, and radiation
Conduction
the transfer of energy as heat through a solid material by direct contact
Convection
the movement of matter due to difference in density; the transfer of energy due to the movement of matter
Radiation
the transfer of heat or other energy as electromagnetic waves, such as visible light or infrared waves; through empty space, not in direct contact
States of matter
the physical forms in which a substance can exist; states include solid, liquid, and gas.
A substance's state
depends on the speed of its particles, the attraction between them, and the pressure around them; chemical composition also influences the state of the substance at a given temperature
condensing
change of state from gas to liquid
freezing
change of state from liquid to solid
melting
change of state from solid to liquid
evaporating
change of state from liquid to gas
particles of solid
strong attraction between them, closely locked in position and can only vibrate
particles of liquid
more loosely connected than those of a solid and can collide with and move past one another
particles of gas
move fast enough so that they overcome the attractions between them. The particles move independently and collide frequently.