76 terms

Beekeeping exam 2

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Aristotle (384-322 BC)
colonies ruled by "kings"
Virgil (70-19 BC)
bees are chaste
Charles Butler (1559-1647)
saw the "king" lay an egg
Jan Swammerdam (1668)
anatomic proof that queens are female and drones are male, "association" with drones is necessary for egg-laying
Francis Huber (1821)
mating takes place outside of the hive
Johannes Dzierzon (1811-1906)
discovered the spermathecae in "fecundated" queens, drones arose from parthenogenesis
Oertel (1940)
Roberts (1944)
Gary (1964)
queens mate more than once
Conditions of mating
-sunny with some patches of blue sky
-warm (>60 F)
-little wind (<10 mph)
optimal ages for mating
Drones:
-start flying 6-8 days old
-sexually mature around 2 weeks
Queens:
-start flying 3-6 days
-sexually mature around 4 days
place of mating
Drone Congregation Areas(DCAs):
-no general rules about where they are formed
-very stable, both spatially and temporally
-follow geographic contours of the landscape
process of mating - orientation flights
-short duration (5-10 min)
-short distance
-learn landmarks to avoid getting lost
process of mating - mating flights
- 50% queens take 1
- 45% queens take 2
- 5% queens take 3+
queens are highly polyandrous
they mate with many drones
spermathecae
queens store sperm here to fertilize eggs for their entire lifetime
drone anatomy
each drone carries about 10 million sperm
"the mating sign"
-clear = unmated (no sperm)
-white = partially mated (2-3 million sperm)
-marbled = fully mated (5-7 million sperm)
artificial insemination - how it works
-drone eversion
-semen collection
-semen injection
honey is antiseptic
as long as honey is air tight it wont spoil, microbes cant grow in it because it is so dry
how to know if your'e extracting honey that is fully ripe
only uncap frames that at least 75% of the honey cells are capped over, so you know they're ready
how to know how much honey you can take
any honey in the brood box is for the bees, any honey in the "honey super" (top boxes) is for the beekeeper
varietal honeys
the predominant nectar source in a given super of honey is from a single plant source
wild flower honey
when the nectar comes from a bunch of different plant sources in a given super of honey
pollination
the transfer of a plant's male reproductive cells(pollen) to the female reproductive structures of a flower(stigma)
fertilization
causes seed set, then fruit develops around the seeds
migratory beekeeping for pollination
-beehives can be relocated to orchards or crops during the blooming period so that honey bee foragers can pollinate the flowers
-honey bees are the primary insect pollinator in modern agriculture
migratory beekeeping in the ancient world
-beekeepers in Lower Egypt shipped their hives up the Nile river in October on rafts to take advantage of earlier blooms, then moving down the river as the spring progressed
-probably an Ancient practice of migratory beekeeping
when to move the hives
-best to move the hives at night to ensure all foragers are in the nest
-foragers scout and find new floral sources the next morning
-if the crop is approx. 10% in bloom, they will focus on it because of floral constancy
when, where, and how many?
-bees tend to forage closer to the hive, so large fields need to have many beehives
-hives are placed in and around a crop to pollinate the blooms
-while the default number of hives is one per acre, the optimal number can vary depending on the crop
the default number of hives
one per acre
crops that are not pollinated by bees
-corn, wheat, rice, potato
-most of the staple crops are wind pollinated, not insect pollinated
honey bees are responsible for how much of everything that people eat every day
1/3
total economic impact of honey bee pollination
bee-dependent crops account for $47.1 billion every year, of which $14.6 billion is attributable to honey bee pollination
who is the primary insect pollinator used in commercial agriculture
honey bees!!
beekeepers move their beehives in and out of orchards and crops during what period?
the blooming period
other pollinators: pros
-native bees are much more effective at pollinating flowers, particularly native flowers
-some pollinators, such as bumble bees, can pollinate certain crops honey bees cannot
are honey bees amenable to greenhouse pollination?
no
other pollinators: cons
-most native bees are solitary and not colonial, so they rarely have the populations sufficient for large scale pollination
-their life cycles are often only a few weeks long, unlike honey bees which are perennial
varroa mite
-introduced from Asia where it evolved with the Eastern honey bee
-agent: ecto-parasite
-symptoms: presence of mites, deformed wings
natural resistance for mites
there are none!
-since the bees didn't coevolve with the mites, they have no natural immunity
mites have almost wiped out all feral bee colonies since introduction in the mid-1980s
if beekeepers don't take action the bees will succumb to the mites in 1-2 years
treatments for mites
-synthetic pesticides are imbedded into plastic strips
-the strips are then hung between the frames in the brood chamber
overuse and abuse of chemical treatments
beekeepers have used the same chemical treatments for varroa mites and have prophalactically applied antibiotics for AFB
the evolution of resistance
as pesticides are applied, it kills the susceptible pests but not the tolerant ones
-overtime there is a higher proportion of tolerant pests that eventually become resistant, making the treatment useless
colony collapse disorder (CCD)
-adult bee population suddenly gone without any accumulation of dead bees
-small cluster with queen, remaining bees often young and therefore cannot fly
-brood, pollen, and honey present
proposed causes of CCD
-nutritional stress
-environmental contamination
-pathology/ diseases
Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus (IAPV)
-found almost exclusively in colonies that have collapsed, and not in colonies that have not collapsed
IAPV is not the cause of CCD
study proves otherwise, was not the answer to the problem
problems with the study
-control colonies died off just as much as the treatment colonies
-not fed realistic doses
-didn't control for other environmental factors (ex mites)
why are varroa mites particularly problematic for beekeepers?
because they have become resistant to many chemical treatments
CCD disorder
newest and largely unknown problem to befall beekeepers, which is likely caused by a combination of different factors
bees are dying for other reasons not just CCD
CCD is not the same thing as colony mortality!!
formula for making honey
sucrose ---(invertase)---> glucose + fructose
the lighter the color of honey
the lighter the taste of honey
the darker the color of honey
the stronger the taste of honey
formula for making mead
glucose/honey ---(yeast)---> alcohol + carbon dioxide
term for honey+water mixture
must
uses of wax
1. cosmetic industry
2. candles
3. wax foundation for beekeepers
uses of pollen
1. health supplement
2. protein source
3. allergy relief
uses of propolis
1. health products (antimicrobial)
2. cancer treatment
3. wood varnish
things you need to make mead
-sugar/glucose/honey
-water
-yeast
-oxygen
which eggs are fertilized/ which are not
-queen: fertilized
-worker: fertilized
-drone: unfertilized
fertilized vs unfertilized
fertilized: pairs of chromosomes = diploid
unfertilized: single chromosomes = haploid
another term for queen rearing
grafting - physical transfer of worker larvae into queen cells
another term for queen-rearing colony
cell builder
necessary requirements for rearing queens
1. no laying queen (no queen pheromone)
2. nurse bees (to feed queen larvae royal jelly)
3. food (pollen and nectar for nurse bees to make royal jelly)
mating nuclei (nucs)
small hives used for mating queens
why was there a spike in beekeeping after ww2?
there were rations on sugar
pollination vs fertilization
bees pollinate, flowers fertilize
bee space
3/8 of an inch
how to extract honey
uncap each frame with a hot knife, stick that in centrifuge and flings honey out of frames, let it strain out into a bucket, filter and jar it
how do you approach a hive
from the side or back, never from the front
who gets royal jelly?
everyone for 3 days, only queens after that
number of hives you should have per acre of crop
ONE
what is queen candy for?
helps to slow the process and integrate the queen into the colony unharmed
what is the bee penis called?
endophallus
how many frames are there per honey super or brood box?
TEN