Unit 1- Foundations of Government Review (Principles of Government, US Consitution, Federalists/Anti-Federalists and the Bill of Rights)

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Terms in this set (...)

Popular Sovereignty
The principle that governmental authority is derived from the people. Under this principle, government governs with the consent of the governed.
Limited government
The principle of limited government holds that a government can only exercise the powers granted to it. Government must be conducted according to the rule of law.
Federalism
Is a system of government in which power is divided between a central authority and constituent units. Under the U.S. Constitution, this principle is reflected in the division of powers between the national government and the states.
Separation of Powers
Requires a distribution of governmental powers among independent branches. Each of the branches has a specific field of authority and unique set of responsibilities within the operation of the government.
Checks and Balances
Constitute a system for controlling government power. Under this principle, the branches of government possess the ability to restrain certain actions of other branches.
Rule of Law
The principle that all people and institutions are subject to and accountable to law that is fairly applied and enforced; the principle of government by law.
Division of Powers
The principle that sovereignty should be divided between the federal government and the states especially as expressed by the Constitution of the U.S.
Consent of the Governed
The authority of a government should depend on the consent of the people, as expressed by votes in elections.
General Welfare
The concern of the government for the health, peace, morality, and safety of its citizens.
Supremacy Clause
It means that the federal government, in exercising any of the powers enumerated in the Constitution, must prevail over any conflicting or inconsistent state exercise of power.
Bill of Rights
Addressed protections for individual rights (Amendments 1 - 9). These amendments reflect the principle of limited government. The 10th Amendment also addressed the principle of limited government as well as federalism.
Amendment
A formal change in the Constitution.
Article V
Describe the process to amend the Constitution of the United States.
Judicial Review
When the Supreme Court has also declared actions of the political branches and of the states to be unconstitutional.
Unconstitutional
Not in accordance with a political constitution, especially the US Constitution, or with other rules.
State Sovereignty
When states, governs itself with a large degree of independence of that national government.
Three Branches of Government
The division of government into executive, legislative, and judicial branches. In the case of the federal government, the three branches were established by the Constitution.
Legislative Branch
Laws are made by the __________________ branch.
Executive Branch
Laws are enforced by the __________________ branch.
Judicial Branch
Laws are interpreted by the __________________ branch.
limited government
Neither a state nor the national government may prevent people from expressing their opinions.
federalism
Most criminal laws are passed by the states.
popular sovereignty
The president is elected every four years.
checks and balances
The Senate confirms presidential appointments.
federalism
The national government provides the rules for bankruptcy.
checks and balances
The Supreme Court has no executive power to carry out its rulings.
limited government
Freedom of religion is guaranteed by the First Amendment.
federalism
The national government prints our money.
checks and balances
The president signs or vetoes bills passed by Congress.
limited government
You may leave the country to visit relatives in Asia.
federalism
The local government is in charge of elections.
separation of powers
The state is in charge of National Guard troops.
Which group supported ratification of the Constitution?
Federalists
Which group supported small government lead by common people such as farmers?
Anti-Federalists
Which group favored supporting the common good over individual rights?
Federalists
Which group fear the national government would form into tyranny like the British?
Anti-Federalists
As a group which group were supported by rich, elite, well educated men who typically involved with business.
Federalists
Which group favored supporting individual rights over the common good?
Anti-Federalists
Which group pushed for the addition of the Bill of Rights?
Anti-Federalists
Which group favored a big strong central government?
Federalists
Which group had leaders such as James Madison in it?
Federalists
Which group had leaders such as Patrick Henry in it?
Anti-Federalists
Which group favored supporting individual rights over the common good ?
Anti-Federalists
Which group fear the mob (common people) ruling would form into tyranny?
Federalists
Which branch enforces laws?
Executive
What does it mean to approve or pass an amendment?
Ratify
Which branch hears cases about the laws and decide what the laws mean?
Judicial
Which branch writes the bills that become law?
Legislative
Which article creates the three branches of the U.S. government?
1, 2, and 3
Which article discusses how states should interact with each other?
4
Which article explains the "supreme law of the land"?
6
Which article explains how to ratify the Constitution?
7
Which article explains how to amend the Constitution?
5
What does the Constitution say is the "supreme law of the land"?
Constitution and federal laws
The opening passage of the Constitution called that using phrases such as "Establish justice" and "Promote general welfare"
Preamble
This was the first system of national government which had a weak central government, lacking powers such as to tax and had no president.
Articles of Confederation
Wanted a strong central government. Believed a strong central government could represent the nation to other
countries. Thought a strong central government could best protect individual citizens' rights and freedoms. Stated three branches (executive, legislative, and judicial) that could limit each other's power. That way,
the central government could not become too powerful.
Federalists
Wanted a small central government. Believed state
government's best understood what citizens needed and would best protect citizens' freedom. Anti-federalists opposed parts of the Constitution they thought
limited the power of the states. They feared that a
central government would become so powerful it would be just like having a king.
Anti-federalists
Ten amendments guaranteed a list of rights to citizens.
Bill of Rights
The amendment guarantees citizens freedom of religion, petition, speech, assembly and press.
1st Amendment
Republicanism
The people exercise their power by delegating it to representatives chosen by them through the election process.
Individual Rights
Personal freedoms, personal protections and equality under the law are guaranteed in the Constitution and Bill of Rights.