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54 terms

Psy 38 Exam 2

Adolescence and parenting
STUDY
PLAY
What area of the brain goes through significant development during the adolescent years?
prefrontal cortex
How many hours of sleep do older adolescents require for optimal functioning?
9 hours per night; they need to go to bed later and to sleep later in the morning
Which of the following STIs can be fatal?
AIDS and gonorrhea
Which of the following terms relates to the knowledge that people have about their own thinking processes, and their ability to monitor their cognition?
metacognition
All of the following are reasons why children from a lower socioeconomic status (SES) do not do as well in school as children from middle or high SES except
children from middle and high SES groups are born with genetically superior IQ potential
Adrienne is a 16-year-old girl who is searching for her identity. Which of the following would not be an example of the search for her self-concept?
she would describe herself in terms of physical characteristics
During adolescence, all of the following are true except
adolescents lack sufficient brain development to make informed decisions
Which of the following adolescents is most likely to suffer from major depression?
Native American female
The rate of adolescent suicide in the U.S. has ____ in the last 30 years
tripled
Why do adolescent boys succeed in committing suicide more often than adolescent girls?
boys tend to use more violent means like guns to attempt suicide
Which of the following is not an alarm or sin of adolescent suicide?
constant wearing of black or dark clothing
A divide between parents and adolescents in attitudes, values, aspirations, and world views is known as
generation gap
When adolescents and their parents disagree, it is usually regarding
music preference or style of dress
According to psychologist Judith Smetana, what is the most likely reason for conflict between adolescents and their parents in the earlier stage of adolescence compared to the later stage of adolescence?
definitions of and rationales for appropriate vs. inappropriate conduct
Sexual segregation in which boys interact primarily with boys and girls primarily interact with girls is called
sexual clevage
What developments lead to the change in the way adolescents view the opposite sex?
onset of puberty cause maturation of sex organs while at the same time societal pressures indicate it is appropriate for romantic involvement to begin
When researching the opinions of college men and women regarding high status in high school, college men said that ____ was the primary reason for a high school girl's high status, and college women said that _____ was the primary reason for a high school girl's high status.
physical attractiveness; grades/intelligence
An adolescent delinquent who is raised with little discipline or with harsh, uncaring parental supervision is called a(n)
undersocialized delinquent
Statistics show that _____ of all arrests for serious crimes involve a person under the age of 18
16%
According to the text, the term "hooking up," to adolescents, means
a vague term that covers everything involved in dating from kissing to sexual intercourse
Adolescents who are gay or lesbian find it difficult to date because of all of the following except
they do not fully accept or understand their own sexuality or sexual preference
The age at which adolescents have sexual intercourse for the first time is _____, and _____ have had sex before the age of 20
declining; 80%
The average age at which adolescents first have sexual intercourse has been steadily _____ over the past 50 years, and about _______ adolescents have has sexual intercourse before the age of _____.
declining; one in five; 15
Despite the fact that the average age in which adolescents report they have engaged in sexual intercourse for the first time is declining. the number of adolescents who say they have never had sexual intercourse has _____ nearly _____ from 1991 to 2001. This is largely due to _________.
increased; 10%; response to the threat of AIDS
According to current norms, if sexual intercourse occurs within the context of a long-term, committed, or loving relationship, it is called
permissiveness with affection
The model of development that seeks to identify the way that individuals take in, use, and store information is called
the information processing perspective
According to information processing explanations of cognitive development during adolescence, one of the most important reasons for advances in mental abilities is the growth of
metacognition
When an adolescent's newly sophisticated metacognitive capability enables him/her to construct elaborate scenarios about others' thought, this is known as
adolescent egocentrism
Which of the following is a type of thinking that is evident in both early childhood and adolescence?
egocentrism
Which of the following is a term that relates to an adolescent's belief that his or her own behavior is a primary focus of others' attentions and concerns?
imaginary audience
Egocentrism leads to distortion in thinking: the notion that one's experiences are unique, and this may lead the adolescent to develop
personal fable
According to Erikson, the period during which teenagers seek to determine what is unique and distinctive about themselves is called
identity-versus-identity-confusion stage
Erikson believed that because of the pressures related to the identity versus identity confusion stage, many adolescents
pursue a "psychological moratorium" during which they take time off from upcoming responsibilities of adulthood to explore alternative roles and possibilities
Psychologist James Marcia suggests that adolescent identity can be seen in terms of two characteristics, which are
crisis or commitment
According to James Marcia, the status of adolescents who commit to a particular identity following a period of crisis during which they consider various alternatives is called
identity achievement
According to James Marcia, the status of adolescents who prematurely commit to an identity without adequately exploring alternatives is called
identity foreclosure
According to James Marcia, the status of adolescents who consider various identity alternatives, but never commit to one or never consider identity options in any conscious way is called
identity diffusion
The desire to have independence and a sense of control over one's life is called
autonomy
A divide between parents and adolescents in attitudes, values, aspirations, and world views is known as
generation gap
Sexual segregation in which boys interact primarily with boys and girls primarily interact with girls is called
sexual cleavage
Allison is well liked by other members of her swim team, but not well liked by other adolescent girls in her homeroom class. Allison would be considered
controversial
If a person is attracted to another person of the same sex, this is
homosexuality
Alan is a very masculine young man who excels in typical male-oriented activities. Still, he is sexually attracted to other men is his
sexual orientation
In the last 10 years, the number of teenagers giving birth has _____ by _____
dropped; 30%
What is the term for parents who are controlling, punitive, rigid, cold, and whose word is law?
authoritarian
What is the term for parents who provide lax and inconsistent feedback and require little of their children?
permissive
What is the term for parents who are firm, setting clear and consistent limits, but who try to reason with their children, giving explanations for why they should behave in a particular way?
authoritative
What type of parents show almost no interest in their children and demonstrate indifferent, rejecting behavior(s)?
uninvolved
Parent style that includes parental warmth proactive teaching, calm discussion during disciplinary episodes, and interest and involvement in their children and peers
activities is called
authoritative or supportive parenting
Maurice is a child of authoritative parents. He is likely to grow up exhibiting all of the following characteristics except
withdrawn behavior and low sociability skills
Randy and Many are the children of authoritarian parents. They are likely to grow up exhibiting all of the following characteristics except
friendly and cooperative behavior
Who was the Swiss developmental researcher whose theory of developmental stages highly influenced a considerable amount of work on cognitive development?
Piaget
Piaget argued that infants acquire knowledge through
direct motor behavior
Piaget's theory of development assumed that all children pass through a series of _____ universal stages in a fixed order from birth to adolescence. These are
4; sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational