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42 terms

Abnormal Psych. Ch. 17

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Substance
naturally occurring or synthetically produced product that alters perceptions, thoughts, emotions, and behaviors when ingested, smoked, or injected
drug addicts
people who are physically dependent on substances and who suffer from withdrawal when not taking the substance
substance-related disorder
inability to use a substance in moderation and/or the intentional use of a substance to change one's thoughts, feelings, and/or behaviors, leading to impairment in work, academic impairment in work, academic, personal, or social endeavors
substance intoxication
experience of significantly maladaptive behavioral and psychological symptoms due to the effect of a substance on the central nervous system that develops during or shortly after use of the substance
substance withdrawal
experience of clinically significant distress in social, occupational, or other areas of functioning due to the cessation or reduction of substance use
substance abuse
diagnosis given when a person's recurrent substance use leads to significant harmful consequences, as manifested by a failure to fulfill obligations at work, school, or home, the use of substances in physically hazardous situations, legal problems, and continued use despite social and legal problems
substance dependence
diagnosis given when a person's substance use leads to physiological dependence or significant impairment or distress, as manifested by an inability to use the substance in moderation; a decline on social, occupational, or recreational activities; or the spending of large amounts of time obtaining substances or recovering from their effects
tolerance
condition of experiencing less and less effect from the same dose of a substance
blackout
amnesia for events that occurred during intoxication
alcohol abuse
diagnosis given to someone who uses alcohol in dangerous situations, fails to meet obligations at work or at home due to alcohol use, and has recurrent legal or social problems as a result of alcohol use
alcohol dependence
diagnosis given to someone who has a physiological tolerance to alcohol, spends a lot of time intoxicated or in withdrawal, or continues to drink despite significant legal, social, medical, or occupational problems that result from alcohol (often referred to as alcoholism)
delirium tremens (DT's)
symptoms that result during severe alcohol withdrawal, including hallucinations, delusions, agitation, and disorientation
alcohol-induced persisting amnesic disorder
permanent cognitive disorder caused by damage to the central nervous system due to prolonged alcohol abuse, consisting of Wernicke's encephalopathy and Korsakoff's psychosis
Wernicke's encephalopathy
alcohol-induced permanent cognitive disorder involving mental disorientation, confusion, and, in severe states, coma
Korsakoff's psychosis
alcohol-induced permanent cognitive disorder involving deficiencies in one's ability to recall both recent and distant events
alcohol-induced dementia
loss of intellectual abilities due to prolonged alcohol abuse, including memory, abstract thinking, judgment, and problem solving, often accompanied by changes in personality, such as increases in paranoia
fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)
syndrome that occurs when a mother abuses alcohol during pregnancy, causing the baby to have lowered IQ, increased risk for mental retardation, distractibility, and difficulties with learning from experience
benzodiazepines
drugs that reduce anxiety and insomnia
barbiturates
drugs used to treat anxiety and insomnia that work by suppressing the central nervous system and decreasing the activity level of certain neurons
inhalants
solvents, such as gasoline, glue, or paint thinner, that one inhales to produce a high and that can cause permanent central nervous system damage as well as liver and kidney disease
cocaine
central nervous system stimulant that causes a rush of positive feelings initially but that can lead to impulsiveness, agitation, and anxiety and can cause withdrawal symptoms of exhaustion and depression
amphetamines
stimulant drugs that can produce symptoms of euphoria, self-confidence, alertness, agitation, paranoia, perceptual illusions, and depression
nicotine
alkaloid found in tobacco; operates on both the central and peripheral nervous systems, resulting in the release of biochemicals, including dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin, and the endogenous opioids
caffeine
chemical compound with stimulant effects
opioids
substances, including morphine and heroin, that produce euphoria followed by a tranquil state; in severe intoxication, can lead to unconsciousness, coma, and seizures; can cause withdrawal symptoms of emotional distress, severe nausea, sweating, diarrhea, and fever
hallucinogens
substances, including LSD and MDMA, that produce perceptual illusions and distortions even in small doses
phenylcyclidine (PCP)
substance that produces euphoria, slowed reaction times, and involuntary movements at low does; disorganized thinking, feelings of unreality, and hostility at intermediate doses; and amnesia, analgesia, respiratory problems, and changes in body temperature at high doses
cannabis
substance that causes feelings of well-being, perceptual distortions, and paranoid thinking
disease model
view that alcoholism (or another drug addiction) is an incurable physical disease, like epilepsy or diabetes, and that only total abstinence can control it
harm-reduction model
approach to treating substance use disorders that views alcohol use as normative behavior and focuses eduction on the immediate risks of the excessive use of alcohol (such as alcohol-related accidents) and on the payoffs of moderation (such as avoidance of hangovers)
detoxification
first step in treatment for substance-related disorders, in which a person stops using the substance and allows it to exit the body fully
antagonist drugs
drugs used to treat anxiety, insomnia, and other psychological symptoms
naltrexone
drug that blocks the positive effects of alcohol and heroin and can lead to a decreased desire to drink or use substances
naloxone
drug that blocks the positive effects of heroin and can lead to a decreased desire to use it
disulfiram
drug that produces and aversive physical reaction to alcohol and is used to encourage abstinence; commonly referred to as antabuse
methadone
opoid that is less potent and longer-lasting than heroin; taken by heroin users to decrease their cravings and help them cope with negative withdrawal symptoms
methadone maintenance programs
treatments for heroin abusers that provide doses of methadone to replace heroin use and that seek eventually to wean addicted people from the methadone itself
aversive classical conditioning
pairing of alcohol with a substance (such as disulfiram) that will interact with it to cause nausea or vomiting in order to make alcohol itself a conditioned stimulus to be avoided
covert sensitization therapy
pairing of mental images of alcohol with other images of highly unpleasant consequences resulting from its use in order to create an aversive reaction to the sight and smell of alcohol and reduce drinking
cue exposure and response prevention
therapy to reduce relapse among alcoholics by tempting them with stimuli that induce cravings to drink while preventing them from actually drinking, allowing them to habituate to the carvings and reduce temptation
abstinence violation effect
what happens when a person attempting to abstain from alcohol use ingests alcohol and then endures conflict and guilt by making an internal attribution to explain why he ir she drank, thereby making him or her more likely to continue drinking in order to cope with the self-blame and guilt
relapse prevention programs
treatments that seek to offset continued alcohol use by identifying high-risk situations for those attempting to stop or cut down on drinking and teaching them either to avoid those situations or to use assertiveness skills when in them, while viewing setbacks as temporary