83 terms

AP Biology - Chemistry Review 2017

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Atom
Is made up of a nucleus with positively charged protons and neutrally charged neurons. It has electrons arranged outside the nucleus.
Molecules
Groups of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
Chemical Bonds
This bond happens because of the interaction between electrons.
Electronegativity
Measure of tendency for the ability of an atom to attract electrons towards it, from its bond.
Ionic Bond
This type of bong is formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another.
Why Ionic bonding happens?
When electronegativity of atoms differ and one has a stronger pull than the other for the electrons. The attraction of the charges constitutes for the bond.
Ions
Atoms that gain electrons have a negative charge. Atoms that lose electrons have a positive charge. Because of their charge the become this.
Covalent Bond
A bond where electron pairs are shared and neither atom has them.
Non-polar Covalent Bond
Bond where electrons are shared equally. Usually the two atoms are identical, where the electronegativity is equal and so is the pull.
Polar Covalent Bond
Bond where electrons are shared unequally. Electronegativity are different, unequal electron distribution, and electrons forms bond closer to atom with higher electronegativity. It produces a pole, with weaker pole (+) and stronger pole(-).
Hydrogen bond
Its a weak bond between molecules. It forms when polar positive H molecules attract the polar negative molecules of other covalently bonded molecules.
Excellent Solvent
Property of water that makes ionic substances soluble (dissolvable) in water because of the ions that forms the two poles. When polar covalent bonded substances interact with water and the poles becomes soluble.
Why non-polar substances do not dissolve in water?
These substances are hydrophobic and do not dissolve in water because they lack charged poles.
High Heat Capacity
Property of water that has to do with the change of temperature due to the increase or decrease of heat. This property is high on water as it changes temperature very slowly with stable changes.
Organic Molecules
Molecules that have carbon
Macromolecules
Large organic molecules with many carbons. Carbohydrates, Lipids, Nucleic Acids, and Proteins are big ones.
Polymer
Molecules that consist of a single unit (monomer) repeatedly.
Functional Groups
Specific groups of molecules that are responsible for the characteristic of other molecules due to their make up. Main seven groups are hydroxyl, carboxyl, amino, phosphate, methyl, carbonyl ketone, and carbonyl aldehyde.
Hydroxyl Gropup
Alcohols (like ethanol), glycerol, and sugars belong to this group. They are characterized as polar hydrophilic.
Carboxyl Group
Carboxyl acids (like acetic acid), amino acids, fatty acids, and sugars belong to this group. Characterized as polar, hydrophilic, and weak acid.
Amino Group
Amines and amino acids are examples for this group. They are characterized as polar, hydrophilic, and weak bases.
Phosphate Group
Organic phosphates that help to make up DNA, ATP, and phospholipids. They are categorized as polar, hydrophilic, and acids.
Ketone
Acetones and sugars are examples of this functional group. They are characterized as polar, hydrophilic. They are a type of carbonyl with a central carbon.
Aldehyde
Formaldehyde is an example of it. It is a carbonyl with a carbon double bonded to an oxygen. It has characteristics that are polar and hydrophilic.
Methyl
A group of only carbons and hydrogens. Fatty acids, oils, and waxes are examples of this group. They are characterized as non polar and hydrophobic.
Carbohydrates
Macromolecule composed of elements carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratio ((CH2O)n), respectively. They are used as storage forms of energy and they are structural molecules.
Monosaccharides
Simplest kind of carbohydrates. It is a single sugar molecule. Glucose and fructose are its most common examples.
Solvent
Property of water that makes ionic substances soluble (dissolvable)
Inorganic Compound
Compounds tgat do not contain the element carbon. Salts and HCl are examples.
Glucose
Single sugar subunit. Exist in alpha and beta form. Its formula is that of C6H12O6.
Disaccharide
2 sugar molecules joined by glycosidic linkages. Maltose and sucrose are examples.
Glycosidic linkages
Process that links sugar molecules through a loss of water molecule. Also called dehydration synthesis or condensation reaction.
Hydrolysis Reaction
A process that breaks down large polymers into smaller subunits by adding water.
Polysaccharides
Polymers or chains of repeating monosaccharide sububits. Glycogen and starch are examples.
Starch
Polymer of of alpha glucose molecules. It serves as a storage molecules for plant cells.
Glycogen
Polysaccharide made up of alpha glucose subunits. It is a major energy storage molecule in animal cells.
Cellulose
Polymer of beta glucose. Serves as a structural molecule in plant cells. It is insoluble in water. Only some organisms like bacteria can break down their bonds.
Chitin
Polysaccharide of beta glucose. It's glucose molecule has nitrogen group attached to ring. It serves as a structural molecule in walls of fungus cells and in exoskeleton of insects, other anthropods, and mollusks.
Lipid
A macromolecule composed of C,H,and O in big ratios. It consist of 3 fatty acid molecules bonded to a single glycerol backbone. They serve as food storaging molecules in animals. They also release a lot of energy and provide insulation and protection against injury since they are made up of fatty (adipose) tissue.
Fatty Acids
Hydrocarbons with carboxyl group at one end. They are attached to a glycerol molecule.
Hydrocarbons
Chains of covalently bonded Carbon and Hydrogen's.
Saturated Fatty Acid
Lipid structure that is a single covalently bonded between each pair of carbon atom. It said thag each carbon is full of hydrogens.
Monosaturated Fatty Acid
One double covalent bond and each carbon has one hydrogen bound to it. A lipid structure.
Poly Unsaturated Fatty Acid
A lipid structure that is covalently bonded with carbon atoms and hydrogen. It has two or more double (C=C) bonds.
Phospholipids
A lipid structure but with one of its fatty acids replaced with a phosphate group. Its tails are nonpolar hydrophobic while its phosphate head is hydrophilic and polar. This provides the structure and support of the cell membrane.
Steroids
Lipid derived structure that has a backbone of four rings. Three of its rings ar3 cyclohexanes and one fused cyclopebtane ring. Cholesterol, the sex hormones testosterone and estrogen, and corticosteroid are examples of it.
Waxes
Esters of fatty acids and monohydroxylic alcohols. They are found as protective coating on skin, fur, leaves, of higher plants, and on the exoskeleton of many insects.
Proteins
Macromolecule composed primarily of elements C,H,O,N but may contain P and S. They are polymers of amino acids.
Amino Acids
Polymers and the building blocks of proteins. They are bonded covalently. There are a total of 19 of them plus one amine group. It is constructed with a central (alpha) carbon bounded to an amino group, carboxyl group, an H-atom, and the R-groups (side chain groups). They are represented by three letters.
Polypeptide Chains
Chain of amino acids joined through peptide bonds. Also called a peptide because they have become a polymer.
Structural Proteins
These type of proteins contribute to the physical support of cell or tissue and movement. They may be extracellular like collagen in cartilage, bone, and tendons, or intracellular like proteins in cell membrane. Another example the keratin
Storage Protein
Proteins that store materials such as amino acids for later use.
Transport Protein
This type of protein carries important materials in and out of the cell. Hemoglobin is an example that carries oxygen in the circulation and the cytochromes carry electrons during cellular respiration.
Signaling Protein
These proteins control physiological processes such as hormones.
Receptor Proteins
These proteins receive and respond to chemical signals.
Defensive Proteins
Proteins that bind to foreign particles (antigens), including disease causing organism that have enetered the body. Antibodies is an example.
Enzymes
Biological catalyst that act by increasing the rate of chemical reactions important for biological functions. Amylase, lipase, and ATPase are examples.
Primary Structure
It is the sequence of amino acids. It is the way that amino acids are ordered.
Secondary Structure
Its the 3D shaped property of amino acids that results from H-bonding of amino and carboxyl of adjecent group of amino acids. Produces alpha helixis (spiral) and beta-pleated sheets (folded planes). Fibrous proteins dominated by these shapes.
Tertiary Structure
Protein property that has 3D shaping and dominates globular proteins. It has hydrogen bonding and ionic bonding between r-groups of amino acids. it has hydrophobic effect happening among r-groups that move towards the center of the of the protein and away from the water. It also has disulfide bonds to help maintains turns of AA by binding to the sulfur atom of two different cystine AA.
Quaternary Structure
Protein assembled from two or more chains. Hemoglobin is an example as it consist of four peptide chains that are held together by the interactions between the r-groups.
Nucleic Acids
A macromolecule that contains elements C,H,O,N, and P. Nucleotides are their polymers. They code all of the information required by an organism to produce proteins and replicate through DNA and RNA.
DNA
The cells genetic info storage molecule. Also called Deoxynucleic Acid. It is a polymer of nucleotides. It consist of a nitrogenous base, a deoxyribose sugar, and a phosphate group. It appears as a two stranded spiral or double helix. Their strands are antiparallel (oriented in opposing directions).
Adenine
A two ring purine nitrogenous base that binds to thymine. Uracil if it is as a RNA molecule.
Guanine
A two ring purine nitrogenous base that binds to Cytosine.
Thymine
A one ring pyrimidine nitrogenous base that binds to adenine.
Cytosine
A one ring nitrogenous base that binds to guanine.
Double Stranded
How the DNA molecule is oriented. Its' spiral and double helix form is known as this. It is oriented from a five prime to a three prime orientation. The phosphate is on the fifth carbon and it ends where the other nucleotide would attach to the third deoxyribose carbon.
RNA
Information transcribed here from a DNA molecule to direct various metabolic activity of the cell. It is a single stranded molecule that is made with a ribonucleic sugar. it differs from a DNA molecule because of its sugar ribose, thymine nitrogenous base is replaced with Uracil to pair with adenine, and it doesn't form a double helix.
Metabolism
Chemical reaction that occurs in biological system. It happens because of the collision of reacting molecules.
Activation Energy
Maximum amount of energy that is required in order to trigger the formation of a bond or start a chemical reaction.
Catalyst
Substance that accelerates reaction but does not go through chemical change.
Catabolism
a process that breaks down subtances
Anabolism
Synthesis- formation of new product
Chemical Equilibrium
A metabolic process where the concentration of reactant and end products drives the overall reaction. The rate of reaction equal and there is no net production.
Sulfhydryl
By giving up H, two —SH groups can react to form a disulfide bridge, thus stabilizing protein structure.
Substrate
The reactants in enzyme-catalyzed reactions.
Induced Fit
Describes how enzymes work. Enzymes have an active site where the reactants (substrates) readily interact due to the shape, polarity, and other characteristics matching. Their interaction changes the shape of the enzyme which places the substrate in a favorable position to interact. This interaction is referred as this.
Co-factor
Are non -polar molecules that assist enzymes
Holoenzyme
Is the complete enzyme with all of its associated parts (cofactors and coenzymes,)
Coenzymes
Its an organic molecule (cofactor) that functions to donate or accept some component of reaction (often the electrons).
Inorganic Cofactors
These are inorganic molecules often metal ions such as iron.
ATP
Adenosine Triphosphate
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