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29 terms

ecology and animal behavior

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ethology
the study of animal behavior
innate behavior
behavior inherited through genes, or learned through interactions w/ environment.
instinct
behavior that's innate or inherited
fap
innate behavior that follows an unvarying pattern.
example of fap
fish responds aggressively to another fish w/ a red belly. anything else red that the fish sees it will also respond aggressively.
imprinting
acquiring a specific behavior, is irreversible
example of imprinting
bird hatches and which ever moving object it sees first, the bird declares it to be its mother, and will always see it as its mother even when presented w/ its actual mother.
associative learning
animal recognizes two or more events are connected
extinction
loss of acquired behavior
spatial learning
animal can find a location based on landmarks along the path
habituation
disregard of a meaningless stimuli
observational learning
copy the behavior of another animal
insight
animal in a new setting performs a behavior with a favorable outcome
maturation
innate behavior sometimes requires _____ , bird has to grow physically before attempting to fly, even though its instincts tell it to fly sooner.
associative learning
allows animal to benefit from exposure to unexpected repeated events.
observational learning
learn new behaviors in response to unexpected events w/o receiving reinforcement. reduces time required for new behaviors to be learned.
kinesis
undirected change in speed of animal's response to a stimulus. Slows down is favorable, speed up isn't
taxis
directed movement, towards or away from a stimulus
chemical, visual, auditory, tactile
4 forms of communication for animals
optimize feeding
goal is to maximize amount eaten while reducing energy used to get the food
concealment
individuals in a flock are hidden from view
vigilance
w/ more animals watching out for predators, it's easier to detect danger
packs
corner and successfully attack large prey
search images
animals find food by looking for an image of the target.
agonistic behavior
aggression and submission, is ritualized so injuries and time spent in contests are reduced
dominance hierarchies
indicate power and status in relationships, reduce fighting for food and mates
territoriality
active possession and defense of the territory, insure adequate food and place to mate
altruistic behavior
reduce fitness of animal, when it risks safety in defense of another
inclusive fitness
fitness of individual plus relatives