ecology and animal behavior
the study of animal behavior
behavior inherited through genes, or learned through interactions w/ environment.
behavior that's innate or inherited
innate behavior that follows an unvarying pattern.
example of fap
fish responds aggressively to another fish w/ a red belly. anything else red that the fish sees it will also respond aggressively.
acquiring a specific behavior, is irreversible
example of imprinting
bird hatches and which ever moving object it sees first, the bird declares it to be its mother, and will always see it as its mother even when presented w/ its actual mother.
animal recognizes two or more events are connected
loss of acquired behavior
animal can find a location based on landmarks along the path
disregard of a meaningless stimuli
copy the behavior of another animal
animal in a new setting performs a behavior with a favorable outcome
innate behavior sometimes requires _____ , bird has to grow physically before attempting to fly, even though its instincts tell it to fly sooner.
allows animal to benefit from exposure to unexpected repeated events.
learn new behaviors in response to unexpected events w/o receiving reinforcement. reduces time required for new behaviors to be learned.
undirected change in speed of animal's response to a stimulus. Slows down is favorable, speed up isn't
directed movement, towards or away from a stimulus
chemical, visual, auditory, tactile
4 forms of communication for animals
goal is to maximize amount eaten while reducing energy used to get the food
individuals in a flock are hidden from view
w/ more animals watching out for predators, it's easier to detect danger
corner and successfully attack large prey
animals find food by looking for an image of the target.
aggression and submission, is ritualized so injuries and time spent in contests are reduced
indicate power and status in relationships, reduce fighting for food and mates
active possession and defense of the territory, insure adequate food and place to mate
reduce fitness of animal, when it risks safety in defense of another
fitness of individual plus relatives