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64 terms

20th century terms

STUDY
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20th saw a rise in what
technology; greatly changed music, recordings, film, television, new styles of music- jazz, rock, hiphop
recordings
allowed music to be listened without having live performers
Edison
invented the cylinder disk in 1877; now quality recordings can surpass the acoustics of a live performance and highly portable
what did the new styles do
helped to culturally integrate; races brought togheter
Jazz
born in New Orleans; combination of African rhythms and improvisations , and European harmonies and instruments
Claude Debussy
master of orchestration; sought to create new timbres, Father of impressionistic music; wrote Violes
impressionism
an artistic movement focused on sensations and perception rather direct representations; the musical parallel contains indistinct harmonies, melodies, and forms
wholesome
all the notes are all one whole step apart
Charles Ives
American; recognized as a pioneer who had challenged convention and gone against the grain before other Americans embraced modernism; wrote The Unanswered Question
tonal
established a harmonic center of gravity; a harmonic sense of tension and release- a sense of resolution and closure and creates moments of consonance
atonal
no harmonic center of gravity- all notes have equal weight and creates dissonance
Arnold Schoenberg
Austrian who later immigrated to the US during the rise of the Nazi in the 1930's ; father of 12 tone; wrote Columbine
12 tone
each of the 12 tones have equal weight; specific type of atonality
sprechstimme
speech-voice
Igor Stravinsky
Russian decent and became a US citizen in '45; one of the greatest, most influential composers of the 20th century; wrote Rite of Spring
polytonal
more than one tonality at the same time
pentatonic melodies
melodies using scales of 5 notes
through-composed
music with very little or no repitition between sections
Scott Joplin
African American; king of ragtime
ragtime
type of music that emphasized syncopations in which no accents on normally accented beats
rhythmic syncopation
melody is syncopated; left hand- a steady 1-2
player piano
a piano that can play without a performer through the use of a piano roll
Terraplane Blues
by Robert Johnson; melody- use of the blue notes; form: 12 bar blues
blue notes
pitches that are performed flatter than the standard major scale
12 bar blues
a form and chord progression very popular in blues, jazz, and early rock and roll; almost always in 4-4 time
Duke Ellington
widely considered the greatest American jazz composer; best known for his composition for swing band/ big band; wrote Cotton Tail
Big Band
jazz band of about 20 players consisting of a handful of saxophones, trumpets, trombones and rhythm section
rhythm section
drum set, bass, piano and guitar
call and response
acts as a form of musical conversation
swing
a rhythm pattern of long and short notes approximating a 2 to 1 ratio- vaires from piece to piece and performer to performer
Charlie Parker
considered one of the greatest jazz improvisers of all time; wrote Ornithology
jazz combo
has 5 to 7 players that include horns (1 sax, trumpet, trombone) plus rhythm section (piano, bass, guitar, drums)
William Grant Still
the foremost African American composer of classical music; first African American composer to: have a symphony performed by a major American orchestra, conduct a major american orchestra, and have an opera performed by a major American opera company; wrote A black pierrot
art song
a song set to poetry
Aaron Copeland
an American composer; most famous for orchestral pieces with an American sound; wrote Rodeo
Bela Bartok
hungarian composer, immigrated to US later in life; ethnomusicologist; used musical styles/traits in his compositions that he found in his ehnomusicological research; wrote the Concerto for Orchestra from Game of Paris
ethnomusicologist
the scholarly study of music that focuses on social dimensions and the ways in which music is used within and between cultures
Leonard Bernstein
first American born musician to lead a major symphony orchestra; virtuoso pianist; composed for the stage, concert hall, and ballet; musical; West side story music
musical
spoken drama with a substantial amount of singing; in the U.S. also known as the Broadway musical
representative melodies
each melody fits the emotional state and action of the characters
additive form
nothing disappears but new layers are constantly added
John Cage
American; questioned the very nature of music and how music is composed; Aleatory music; musique concrete; wrote Indeterminancy
aleatory music
music leaving some basic elements up to chance; usually notes and rhythms
musique concrete
music using sounds generated by every day, real objects not normally though of as musical instruments and then manipulated electronically
Philip Glass
American; prolific minimalist; wrote Knee Play
minimalism
a style in which a brief musical idea or group of ideas are repeated and varied incrementally over a long span of time with a relatively slow rate of change
Chuck Berry
in mid 50's he helped to create a new genre- Rock n Roll; concerts of integrated audiences promoted a greater appreciation of culctural differences ( or perhaps a lack thereof); wrote School Days
Rock and Roll
aimed at teenage audiences and was enjoyed by younsters of all races; American Bandstand and Dick Clark ;
shuffle and groove
mid-tempo rhythmic pattern, quadruple meter in which each beat is subdivided into 3 beats
stoptime
instrumental accompaniment strikes a single note on a downbeat of a measure together
Motown
a popular record label in the 60's and 70's
hook
a short, catchy motif
close harmonies
tight spacing of pitches within chords
Beach Boys
most popular in mid 60s; in the early 60s best known for pop music related to swing culture; in mid 60s expanded styles to include psychedelic rock; wrote Good vibrations
psychedelia
music influenced by hippie movement of the 60's with its emphasis on mind-expanding drugs, brightly colored fashions, and spiritual and social freedom
Theremin
one of the earliest electronic musical instruments
rap
combines rhythmed, syncopated speech patterns with hip hop beats
sampling
to record music or sound from an existing album then samples are manipulated for pitch, duration, timbre and played back as an accompaniment for rappers' lyrics
3 elements typical of most rap
steady throbbing beat, complicated set of rhythmic patterns, syncopated lyrics
Tania Leon
cuban born; immigrated to US in 67; wrote A la Par
percussion
an instrument that produces sound by being struck or shaken, they can be both pitched (piano, xylophone) and non-pitched (snare drum, cow bell, conga)
Tan Dun
born in Southern China; immigrated to US; as a composer, draws inspiration from his Chinese ancestry, combining it with traditions of western classical music; he didn't hear Bach until he was 20; wrote Farewell
Erhu
chinese string instrument
tonality
a struggle between old and new styles (tonal and atonal)