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20th saw a rise in what

technology; greatly changed music, recordings, film, television, new styles of music- jazz, rock, hiphop


allowed music to be listened without having live performers


invented the cylinder disk in 1877; now quality recordings can surpass the acoustics of a live performance and highly portable

what did the new styles do

helped to culturally integrate; races brought togheter


born in New Orleans; combination of African rhythms and improvisations , and European harmonies and instruments

Claude Debussy

master of orchestration; sought to create new timbres, Father of impressionistic music; wrote Violes


an artistic movement focused on sensations and perception rather direct representations; the musical parallel contains indistinct harmonies, melodies, and forms


all the notes are all one whole step apart

Charles Ives

American; recognized as a pioneer who had challenged convention and gone against the grain before other Americans embraced modernism; wrote The Unanswered Question


established a harmonic center of gravity; a harmonic sense of tension and release- a sense of resolution and closure and creates moments of consonance


no harmonic center of gravity- all notes have equal weight and creates dissonance

Arnold Schoenberg

Austrian who later immigrated to the US during the rise of the Nazi in the 1930's ; father of 12 tone; wrote Columbine

12 tone

each of the 12 tones have equal weight; specific type of atonality



Igor Stravinsky

Russian decent and became a US citizen in '45; one of the greatest, most influential composers of the 20th century; wrote Rite of Spring


more than one tonality at the same time

pentatonic melodies

melodies using scales of 5 notes


music with very little or no repitition between sections

Scott Joplin

African American; king of ragtime


type of music that emphasized syncopations in which no accents on normally accented beats

rhythmic syncopation

melody is syncopated; left hand- a steady 1-2

player piano

a piano that can play without a performer through the use of a piano roll

Terraplane Blues

by Robert Johnson; melody- use of the blue notes; form: 12 bar blues

blue notes

pitches that are performed flatter than the standard major scale

12 bar blues

a form and chord progression very popular in blues, jazz, and early rock and roll; almost always in 4-4 time

Duke Ellington

widely considered the greatest American jazz composer; best known for his composition for swing band/ big band; wrote Cotton Tail

Big Band

jazz band of about 20 players consisting of a handful of saxophones, trumpets, trombones and rhythm section

rhythm section

drum set, bass, piano and guitar

call and response

acts as a form of musical conversation


a rhythm pattern of long and short notes approximating a 2 to 1 ratio- vaires from piece to piece and performer to performer

Charlie Parker

considered one of the greatest jazz improvisers of all time; wrote Ornithology

jazz combo

has 5 to 7 players that include horns (1 sax, trumpet, trombone) plus rhythm section (piano, bass, guitar, drums)

William Grant Still

the foremost African American composer of classical music; first African American composer to: have a symphony performed by a major American orchestra, conduct a major american orchestra, and have an opera performed by a major American opera company; wrote A black pierrot

art song

a song set to poetry

Aaron Copeland

an American composer; most famous for orchestral pieces with an American sound; wrote Rodeo

Bela Bartok

hungarian composer, immigrated to US later in life; ethnomusicologist; used musical styles/traits in his compositions that he found in his ehnomusicological research; wrote the Concerto for Orchestra from Game of Paris


the scholarly study of music that focuses on social dimensions and the ways in which music is used within and between cultures

Leonard Bernstein

first American born musician to lead a major symphony orchestra; virtuoso pianist; composed for the stage, concert hall, and ballet; musical; West side story music


spoken drama with a substantial amount of singing; in the U.S. also known as the Broadway musical

representative melodies

each melody fits the emotional state and action of the characters

additive form

nothing disappears but new layers are constantly added

John Cage

American; questioned the very nature of music and how music is composed; Aleatory music; musique concrete; wrote Indeterminancy

aleatory music

music leaving some basic elements up to chance; usually notes and rhythms

musique concrete

music using sounds generated by every day, real objects not normally though of as musical instruments and then manipulated electronically

Philip Glass

American; prolific minimalist; wrote Knee Play


a style in which a brief musical idea or group of ideas are repeated and varied incrementally over a long span of time with a relatively slow rate of change

Chuck Berry

in mid 50's he helped to create a new genre- Rock n Roll; concerts of integrated audiences promoted a greater appreciation of culctural differences ( or perhaps a lack thereof); wrote School Days

Rock and Roll

aimed at teenage audiences and was enjoyed by younsters of all races; American Bandstand and Dick Clark ;

shuffle and groove

mid-tempo rhythmic pattern, quadruple meter in which each beat is subdivided into 3 beats


instrumental accompaniment strikes a single note on a downbeat of a measure together


a popular record label in the 60's and 70's


a short, catchy motif

close harmonies

tight spacing of pitches within chords

Beach Boys

most popular in mid 60s; in the early 60s best known for pop music related to swing culture; in mid 60s expanded styles to include psychedelic rock; wrote Good vibrations


music influenced by hippie movement of the 60's with its emphasis on mind-expanding drugs, brightly colored fashions, and spiritual and social freedom


one of the earliest electronic musical instruments


combines rhythmed, syncopated speech patterns with hip hop beats


to record music or sound from an existing album then samples are manipulated for pitch, duration, timbre and played back as an accompaniment for rappers' lyrics

3 elements typical of most rap

steady throbbing beat, complicated set of rhythmic patterns, syncopated lyrics

Tania Leon

cuban born; immigrated to US in 67; wrote A la Par


an instrument that produces sound by being struck or shaken, they can be both pitched (piano, xylophone) and non-pitched (snare drum, cow bell, conga)

Tan Dun

born in Southern China; immigrated to US; as a composer, draws inspiration from his Chinese ancestry, combining it with traditions of western classical music; he didn't hear Bach until he was 20; wrote Farewell


chinese string instrument


a struggle between old and new styles (tonal and atonal)

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