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Final- Exam 1 questions NFS

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50% whole grains
Approximately what minimum percentage of all grains consumed by a person should be whole grains?
Emulsification
The process by which bile acts on fat so enzymes can hydrolyze the fat is know as ______
2000 kcals
On a food label the % Daily Value table compares the key nutrients per serving for a person consuming how many kcals daily?
reflux (heartburn)
what is a consequence of having a weak lower esophageal sphincter
liver
which of the following body organs does NOT secrete digestive enzymes? liver, stomach, pancreas, or salivary glands
mouth
in what organ does digestive process begin?
average energy intake for a large amount of people
What represents a rationale for setting the recommendation for the EER (Estimated Energy Requirement)?
Vitamin C
Which of the following nutrients is organic but does NOT yield energy? vitmain c, table sugar, iron, or alcohol..
Secretin
What stimulates the pancreas to release bicarbonate-rich juice?
Pneumonia and influenza
Diet influences risk of the following leading causes of death in the U.S. EXCEPT which? alzheimer's disease, heart disease, cancer, pneumonia and influenza.
tobacco use
What behavior is the major cause of death in the U.S.
whole-grain
Which of the following breads has the highest fiber content? Brown colored, refined, enriched, whole-grain.
anthropometric data
height, weight, head-circumference or fat-fold measurements that are used to evaluate an individual's nutrition status are examples of ____ ____.
The inner space
what is the lumen of the GI tract?
essential nutrients
_____ ____ cannot be made in sufficient quantities by the body
stomach
Among the GI tract organs, which has the strongest muscles?
water
both the human body and many plant foods are composed mostly of what?
endosperm
refined grain products contain only the ___
33%
Of the daily recommended intake of fruit servings, what maximum percentage may be supplied by 100% fruit juice?
mucus in the stomach
what protects the stomach cells from gastric juices?
probiotics
living bacteria found in yogurt are known as ___
stores bile
what is one function of the gallblader
carbohydrate in the form of starch
which of the following is NOT a typical component of stools? water, fiber carbohydrate in the form of starch, bacteria.
duodenum
Which of the following is NOT a sphincter muscle? anus, cardiac, duodenum, ileocecal valve
it produces sharp pains
features of a chronic disease include all of the following EXCEPT.. it develops slowly, it lasts a long time, it produces sharp pains, progresses gradually.
iron
What mineral is added in the enrichment process of refined flours?
capillaries
exchange of oxygen, nutrients, and waste materials takes place across the walls of small vessels called ___
raise the pH of chyme, making it more neutral.
the purpose of bicarbonate in the digestive process is to ________
Vitamin A and C
According to nutrition labeling laws, the amounts of what 2 vitamins MUST be listed on the package label?
mastication
act of chewing
vitamin B12
What vitamin are vegetarians most likely to have deficiencies in?
liver
when nutrients are transported from intestinal cells to the vascular system, what organ is first to receive them?
humans as subjects
clinical trial must involve _____
hydrolyzed in the GI tract
what is the fate of any enzymes that are present in the foods we eat?
stomach and small intestine
During normal digestion where would chyme be found?
Small intestine
where are most nutrients absorbed?
ileocecal valve
what structure controls the passage of material from the small intestine to the large intestine?
kcalorie control
The concept of nutrient density is most helpful in achieving what principle of diet planning?
19%
A weight reduction regimen calls for a daily intake of 1400 kcalories which includes 30 g of fat. Approximately what percentage of the total energy is contributed by fat?
Adequacy, balance, kcal control, nutrient density, moderation, and variety
What are the "ABCDMV" principles of diet planning?
50%
If a group of people consumed an amount of vitamin C equal to the average requirement for their population group, what percentage would receive insufficient amounts?
Registered dietitian
Who would be the most appropriate person to consult regarding nutrition information?
highest level health claim in cereal
"This product contains whole grains which have been proven to reduce the risk of heart disease and certain cancers"
2 cups
according to the USDA Food Guide how many cups of fruits and vegetables should an individual who has a recommended daily energy intake of 2,000 kcals consume per day?
meats
What food group are legumes found in?
minerals
overcooking a food is LEAST likely to effect ______
20-35%
What is the AMDR (acceptable macronutrient distribution range) for lipids in the diet?
Stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, colon
After swallowing in what order does food pass through the regions of the GI tract?
Fiber
what typically does not get digested but stimulates intestinal muscle contractions?
sugar, puffed wheat, dry milk powder, salt, red food coloring
What is the appropriate order in which to list these ingredients on the food label? (Sugar: 30 g, Puffed wheat: 28 g, dried milk powder: 5 g, food coloring: 35 mg, Salt: 2 g)
constipation
a lifestyle change of increased fiber intake of 20-25 grams per day and drinking plenty of water helps with ___
fortification
the addition of calcium to some orange juice products by food manufacturers is most properly termed nutrient ____
dehydration
A person with chronic diarrhea is at risk of ____
Epiglottis
what part of the GI tract prevents a person from choking while swallowing?
Tolerable Upper Intake Level
___ ___ ___ ___ nutrients represents the maximum amount from all sources that appears safe for most healthy people.
fiber
which of the following is NOT one of the six classes of nutrients? Fiber, lipids, water.
Estimated Average Requirement
Recommended Dietary Allowances are based on the __ __ __
taste
What is the chief reason people choose the foods they eat?
RDA for vitamin and mineral intakes set
High, to cover nutritional requirements for about 98% of all healthy individuals in a population.
880 grams
a diet provides a total of 2200 kcalories, of which 40% of the energy is from fat and 20% from protein. How many grams of carbs are contained in the diet?
peer review
Before publication in a reputable journal, the findings of a research study must undergo scrutiny by experts in the field according to a process known as __ __
nutrient-dense foods.
According to the principle of the USDA Food Guide, the foundation of a healthful diet should consist of