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50% whole grains

Approximately what minimum percentage of all grains consumed by a person should be whole grains?


The process by which bile acts on fat so enzymes can hydrolyze the fat is know as ______

2000 kcals

On a food label the % Daily Value table compares the key nutrients per serving for a person consuming how many kcals daily?

reflux (heartburn)

what is a consequence of having a weak lower esophageal sphincter


which of the following body organs does NOT secrete digestive enzymes? liver, stomach, pancreas, or salivary glands


in what organ does digestive process begin?

average energy intake for a large amount of people

What represents a rationale for setting the recommendation for the EER (Estimated Energy Requirement)?

Vitamin C

Which of the following nutrients is organic but does NOT yield energy? vitmain c, table sugar, iron, or alcohol..


What stimulates the pancreas to release bicarbonate-rich juice?

Pneumonia and influenza

Diet influences risk of the following leading causes of death in the U.S. EXCEPT which? alzheimer's disease, heart disease, cancer, pneumonia and influenza.

tobacco use

What behavior is the major cause of death in the U.S.


Which of the following breads has the highest fiber content? Brown colored, refined, enriched, whole-grain.

anthropometric data

height, weight, head-circumference or fat-fold measurements that are used to evaluate an individual's nutrition status are examples of ____ ____.

The inner space

what is the lumen of the GI tract?

essential nutrients

_____ ____ cannot be made in sufficient quantities by the body


Among the GI tract organs, which has the strongest muscles?


both the human body and many plant foods are composed mostly of what?


refined grain products contain only the ___


Of the daily recommended intake of fruit servings, what maximum percentage may be supplied by 100% fruit juice?

mucus in the stomach

what protects the stomach cells from gastric juices?


living bacteria found in yogurt are known as ___

stores bile

what is one function of the gallblader

carbohydrate in the form of starch

which of the following is NOT a typical component of stools? water, fiber carbohydrate in the form of starch, bacteria.


Which of the following is NOT a sphincter muscle? anus, cardiac, duodenum, ileocecal valve

it produces sharp pains

features of a chronic disease include all of the following EXCEPT.. it develops slowly, it lasts a long time, it produces sharp pains, progresses gradually.


What mineral is added in the enrichment process of refined flours?


exchange of oxygen, nutrients, and waste materials takes place across the walls of small vessels called ___

raise the pH of chyme, making it more neutral.

the purpose of bicarbonate in the digestive process is to ________

Vitamin A and C

According to nutrition labeling laws, the amounts of what 2 vitamins MUST be listed on the package label?


act of chewing

vitamin B12

What vitamin are vegetarians most likely to have deficiencies in?


when nutrients are transported from intestinal cells to the vascular system, what organ is first to receive them?

humans as subjects

clinical trial must involve _____

hydrolyzed in the GI tract

what is the fate of any enzymes that are present in the foods we eat?

stomach and small intestine

During normal digestion where would chyme be found?

Small intestine

where are most nutrients absorbed?

ileocecal valve

what structure controls the passage of material from the small intestine to the large intestine?

kcalorie control

The concept of nutrient density is most helpful in achieving what principle of diet planning?


A weight reduction regimen calls for a daily intake of 1400 kcalories which includes 30 g of fat. Approximately what percentage of the total energy is contributed by fat?

Adequacy, balance, kcal control, nutrient density, moderation, and variety

What are the "ABCDMV" principles of diet planning?


If a group of people consumed an amount of vitamin C equal to the average requirement for their population group, what percentage would receive insufficient amounts?

Registered dietitian

Who would be the most appropriate person to consult regarding nutrition information?

highest level health claim in cereal

"This product contains whole grains which have been proven to reduce the risk of heart disease and certain cancers"

2 cups

according to the USDA Food Guide how many cups of fruits and vegetables should an individual who has a recommended daily energy intake of 2,000 kcals consume per day?


What food group are legumes found in?


overcooking a food is LEAST likely to effect ______


What is the AMDR (acceptable macronutrient distribution range) for lipids in the diet?

Stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, colon

After swallowing in what order does food pass through the regions of the GI tract?


what typically does not get digested but stimulates intestinal muscle contractions?

sugar, puffed wheat, dry milk powder, salt, red food coloring

What is the appropriate order in which to list these ingredients on the food label? (Sugar: 30 g, Puffed wheat: 28 g, dried milk powder: 5 g, food coloring: 35 mg, Salt: 2 g)


a lifestyle change of increased fiber intake of 20-25 grams per day and drinking plenty of water helps with ___


the addition of calcium to some orange juice products by food manufacturers is most properly termed nutrient ____


A person with chronic diarrhea is at risk of ____


what part of the GI tract prevents a person from choking while swallowing?

Tolerable Upper Intake Level

___ ___ ___ ___ nutrients represents the maximum amount from all sources that appears safe for most healthy people.


which of the following is NOT one of the six classes of nutrients? Fiber, lipids, water.

Estimated Average Requirement

Recommended Dietary Allowances are based on the __ __ __


What is the chief reason people choose the foods they eat?

RDA for vitamin and mineral intakes set

High, to cover nutritional requirements for about 98% of all healthy individuals in a population.

880 grams

a diet provides a total of 2200 kcalories, of which 40% of the energy is from fat and 20% from protein. How many grams of carbs are contained in the diet?

peer review

Before publication in a reputable journal, the findings of a research study must undergo scrutiny by experts in the field according to a process known as __ __

nutrient-dense foods.

According to the principle of the USDA Food Guide, the foundation of a healthful diet should consist of

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