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final study cards

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antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
secreted by posterior pituitary gland - enhances water conservation in kidneys
oxytocin (OT)
secreted by posterior pituitary gland - contracts smooth muscles in uterus & mammary glands
calcitonin
secreted by thyroid gland - regulates blood calcium concentration
thyroxine (T4)
(4 atoms of iodine) secreted by thyroid gland - INCREASE rate at which cells release energy, enhance rate of protein synthesis, and stimulate breakdown and mobilization of lipids
triiodothyronin (T3)
(3 atoms of iodine) secreted by thyroid gland - INCREASE rate at which cells release energy, enhance rate of protein synthesis, and stimulate breakdown and mobilization of lipids - more potent 5x than T4
parathyroid hormone (PTH)
secreted by parathyroid gland - helps regulate the level of blood calcium and phosphate ions
epinephrine (EPI)
secreted by adrenal medulla in times of stress
norepinephrine (NE)
secreted by adrenal medulla - neurotransmitter
aldosterone
secreted by adrenal cortex - a mineralocorticoid - regulates sodium and potassium ion concentration and fluid volume - stimulates kidney to retain sodium & excrete potassium
cortisol (hydrocortisone)
secreted by adrenal cortex - a glucocorticoid - affects glucose metabolism (stimulates glucose synthesis)- influences protein (decreases protein synthesis) & fat metabolism (increases fatty acid release)
glucagon
secreted by pancreas - stimulates liver to break down glycogen into glucose and noncarbohydrates into glucose and fats into fatty acids/glycerol
insulin
secreted by pancreas - stimulates cells to take up glucose
somatostatin (SS)
secreted by pancreas - helps regulate carbohydrates - inhibits release of growth hormone
growth hormone (GH)
secreted by anterior pituitary - stimulates increase in size and rate of division of body cells - enhances movement of amino acids through membranes - promotes growth of long bones
prolactin (PRL)
secreted by anterior pituitary - sustains milk production after birth, amplifies effect of LH in males
thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
secreted by anterior pituitary - controls secretion of hormones from thyroid gland
adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
secreted by anterior pituitary - controls secretion of certain hormones from adrenal cortex
follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
secreted by anterior pituitary - development of egg-containing follicles in ovaries - stimulates follicular cells to secrete estrogen - (males: stimulates production of sperm cells)
luteinizing hormone (LH)
secreted by anterior pituitary - promotes secretion of sex hormones - releases egg cell in females
corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)
secreted by hypothalamus - stimulates secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone from anterior pituitary
gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)
secreted by hypothalamus - stimulates secretion of FSH & LH from anterior pituitary
somatostatin (SS)
secreted by hypothalamus - inhibits release of growth hormone from anterior pituitary
growth-hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH)
secreted by hypothalamus - stimulates secretion of growth hormone from anterior pituitary
prolactin release-inhibiting hormone (PIH)
secreted by hypothalamus - inhibits release of prolactin from anterior pituitary - "dopamine"
thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH)
secreted by hypothalamus - regulates TSH secretion from anterior pituitary
prolactin-releasing factor (PRF)
secreted by hypothalamus - stimulates release of prolactin from anterior pituitary
controls anterior pituitary by releasing hormones
hypothalamus
stimulates other endocrine glands to release hormones
anterior pituitary
controls posterior pituitary by nerve impulses
hypothalamus
effects of sympathetic nerve impulses on the alimentary canal are
inhibitory, or slow down activity
effects of parasympathetic nerve impulses on the alimentary canal
stimulative, or cause increases in
activity
loss of teeth is most commonly associated with diseases of the
gums and dental pulp
poor nutritional status of persons with limited economic resources is most likely related to a(n)
excessive use of carbohydrates
In order to lose one pound of fat, a person's diet must provide a deficit of
3,500 calories
Night blindness is most likely to be caused by a deficiency of
vitamin A
example of trace element
iron
provides a short-term energy source after cellular glucose supplies are depleted
glycogen
Hyperventilation is most likely to be accompanied by a(n)
decrease in blood CO2 concentration and a rise in pH
cartilage that marks the lowermost portion of the larynx
cricoid cartilage
lipoprotein that reduces surfaced tension within the alveoli so that they do not collapse during exhalation
surfactant
basic rhythm of breathing is controlled by which portion of the brain
dorsal respiratory group of the medullary rhythmicity center
Whether oxygen diffuses from the alveoli into the blood or not is dependent upon
the partial pressure of all gases in the atmosphere and blood
enzyme carbonic anhydrase causes
carbon dioxide to react with water
intensity (volume) of a vocal sound is a result of the
force of air passing over the vocal cords
most important protein, physiologically, in the transport of carbon dioxide by blood
carbonic anhydrase
Laryngitis is a potentially dangerous condition because it may cause
obstruction of the airway
procedure used to directly examine the trachea and bronchial tree is called
bronchoscopy
hormone ADH functions to promote water reabsorption through the wall(s) of the
distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct
parts of a renal tubule in the correct sequence from beginning to end
proximal convoluted tubule, descending limb, ascending limb, distal convoluted tubule
order of structures through which urine flows after its formation in the nephron
calyx, renal pelvis, ureter, urinary bladder, urethra
increase the rate of glomerular filtration
increased blood pressure
tangled cluster of blood capillaries
renal corpuscle
highly coiled tubule that leads away from the glomerular capsule
renal tubule
reabsorption of glucose occurs primarily through the walls of the
proximal convoluted tubule
Site of filtrate formation
glomerulus
Secondarily important site of tubular reabsorption
distal convoluted tubule
Primary site of tubular reabsorption
proximal convoluted tubule
Structure that conveys the processed filtrate (urine) to the renal pelvis
collecting duct
countercurrent mechanism functions primarily in the
nephron loop
The largest quantity of hydrogen ions is secreted
actively into the proximal convoluted
tubule
primary stimulus for the secretion of aldosterone is
rising potassium concentration
most helpful in treating hypocalcemia
administering high doses of vitamin D
Compared to males who train for endurance events, females who train for such events typically
maintain a higher percentage of body
fat
One of the more common causes of female infertility is failure of ovulation due to hyposecretion of hormones from the
anterior pituitary gland
Undifferentiated spermatogenic cells
spermatogonia
last fluid to be expelled from the urethra during ejaculation comes from
seminal vesicles
Male reproductive functions are controlled mainly by hormones from the hypothalamus, and
anterior pituitary gland and testes
paired male genital structures
seminal vesicle, vas deferens, bulbourethral gland
In females, what structure is located immediately anterior to the vagina
pubic symphysis
cell commonly called the egg, or ovum
secondary oocyte
most commonly used oral contraceptives contain
synthetic estrogen and progesterone
cells of a blastocyst that give rise to the body of the developing offspring constitute the
inner cell mass (ICM)
provides the main source of energy for a newborn during its first few days
fat
Following birth, bradykinin is released from the newborn's lungs in response to
an increasing concentration of oxygen in
aortic blood
placenta is composed of tissues from the
mother & embryo
major difference between fetal blood flow and adult blood flow is that in the fetus the
inferior vena cava contains blood high
in oxygen
adult structure not derived from the same primary germ layer
nerves
inner cell mass within a blastocyst is significant in that it
gives rise to the embryo
placenta synthesizes progesterone from
cholesterol
Following birth, the infant's metabolic rate
increases and its oxygen consumption
increases
ductus arteriosus allows fetal blood to move from the
pulmonary trunk into the aorta
Which ventricle wall of the heart would be the thickest upon inspection?
left
abnormal increase in white blood cells
leukocytosis
Veins which drain the liver
hepatic
endocrine gland regulates the ovarian cycle
anterior pituitary
arteries serve tissues external to the skull?
external carotid
endocrine gland(s) control secondary sexual characteristics
both ovaries and testes
artery serves most of the small intestine
superior mesenteric
artery or arteries supply the brain
vertebral and internal carotid
low abnormal red blood cell count
anemia
acts on target cell by diffusing through membrane, entering nucleus, combining w/ receptor molecule -> binds to DNA, transcribes RNA, RNA enters cytoplasm and directs protein synthesis -> hormone effects
steroid hormones
body fluid carries hormone to target cell, combine w/ receptor on membrane, activates G protein, adenylate cyclase circulizes ATP into cyclic AMP which activates protein kinases -> effects
nonsteroid hormones
blood clotting due to damage to vessel or tissue
extrinsic clotting mechanism
blood clotting due to contact with foreign substance
intrinsic clotting mechanism
major event in blood clot formation
conversion of fibrinogen (factor 1) into fibrin
trigger (damage or contact) -> initiation (thromboplastin or Hageman factor) -> series of reactions involving clotting factors (produces prothrombin activator) -> prothrombin activator + calcium ions convert prothrombin to thrombin -> thrombin causes fragmentation then joining of fibrinogen to fibrin -> fibrin clot
steps in clot formation
plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets
components of blood
antigen A absent - antibody anti-A produced, antigen B absent - antibody anti-B produced
determining blood type
universal recipient - has both antigen A and B
type AB
universal donor - has neither antigen A or B
type O
transport cholesterol from tissue cells (arteries) to liver for disposal in bile - GOOD cholesterol
HDL - high-density-lipoprotein
transport cholesterol to body cells where they are used in various ways - BAD cholesterol
LDL - low-density-lipoprotein
vena cava ->right atrium -> right atrioventricular orifice -> right ventricle -> pulmonary valve -> pulmonary trunk -> capilllaries of lungs
path of blood from vena cava to lungs
SA node -> AV node-> AV bundle -> Purkinje fibers
sequence of cardiac impulses
tricuspid/mitral valve closes, blood passes through pulmonary/aortic valve into capillaries/aorta
when ventricular walls contract..
outer layer of heart - protects, reduces friction
epicardium
middle layer of heart - thick, cardiac muscle tissue that pumps blood out of chambers
myocardium
inner layer of heart - epithelium underlying connecive tissue, blood vessels, Purkinje fibers - lines heart chambers/covers structures
endocardium
recording of electrical changes in myocardium during cardiac cycle
ECG - electrocardiogram
depolarization of atrial fibers
P wave
baseline after depolarization
QRS complex
depolarization of ventricular fibers
Q, R, S waves
ventricular fiber REpolarization
T wave
contractions of ventricles
when blood pressure is greatest
largest lymphatic organ (filled w/blood instead of lymph) - filters blood - macrophages destroy foreign particles, lymphocytes defend against infection
spleen
immunity naturally acquired - recipient's cells DO NOT produce antibodies (ex: antiserum shot, newborn immunity through breastmilk)
passive immunity
immunity in which recipient's cell DO produce antibodies (ex: vaccine)
active immunity
immunity acquired from contact with live pathogens or passed from mother to fetus
natural immunity
immunity in which vaccine cells stimulate immune response (also comes from gama globulin injection)
artificial immunity
80% of antibodies, in plasma/tissue fluid, defends against bacteria, viruses, toxins, activates complement
Immunoglobulin G
13% of antibodies - defends against bacteria/viruses
Immunoglobulin A
reacts with antigens on some RBC membranes following mismatched blood transfusion, activates complement
Immunoglobulin M
on surfaces of most B cells/lymphocytes - acts as antigen receptor - activates B cells
Immunoglobulin D
in exocrine gland secretions with IgA - associated with allergic reactions - promotes inflammation
Immunoglobulin E
teeth best for biting off large pieces of food
incisors
largest internal organ - reddish brown in color -mostly functions in metabolism - uses fatty acids to speed up lipid metabolism -> triglycerides
liver
vitamins A, D, E, and K - dissolve in fats
fat-soluble vitamins
important in vision - deficiency may cause night blindness
vitamin A
iron, manganese, copper, iodine, cobalt, zinc, fluorine, slenium, chromium
trace elements
microminerals essential - found in minute amounts (less than .005% of the body weight)
trace elements
200-300 grams daily consumed --> 125-175 grams needed
typical carbohydrate amount in U.S. diet
breathing (ventilation) - movement of air from outside body into bronchial tree & alveoli, followed by reversal of air movement
inspiration/expiration
atmospheric pressure due to the weight of the air causes
inspiration
"elastic recoil" of lung tissues and surface tension causes
expiration
volume of air that enters or leaves during a respiratory cycle
tidal volume
amount of air remaining in the lungs after expiration
residual volume
vital capacity (max a person can exhale after deep breath) plus the residual volume (about 5,800 mL)
total lung capacity
lung with 3 lobes (divided by fissures) - superior, middle, inferior lobes
right lung
lung with 2 lobes - superior, inferior lobes
left lung
speeds the reaction between CO2 and water
carbonic anhydrase
low intrapleural pressure, no significant space
holds visceral and parietal membranes together
passageway for food moving from oral cavity to esophagus and for air passing between nasal cavity and larynx - aids in producing sounds of speech - subdivisions: nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharynx
pharynx
enlargement in the airway superior to trachea - passageway for air moving in and out of trachea and prevents foreign objects from entering - houses vocal cords.
larynx
thyroid, cricoid, epiglottic - largest/single ; arytenoid, corniculate, cuneiform - paired
larynx cartilages
1. nerve impulses travel on phrenic nerves to muscle fibers in diaphragm, contracting them / 2. diaphragm moves downward, thoracic cavity expands / 3. external intercostal muscles may contract, raising ribs and expanding thoracic cavity further / 4. intra-alveolar pressure decreases / 5. atmospheric pressure forces air into respiratory tract through air passages / 6. lungs fill with air
events in inspiration
part of a nephron - consists of a filtering unit composed of tangled cluster of blood capillaries (glomerulus) & surrounding thin-walled, saclike structure (glomerular capsule)
renal corpuscle
wastes, excess water, electrolytes
urine
part of kidneys concentrating urine - ensures medullary interstitial fluid becomes hypertonic - found in nephron loops
countercurrent mechanism
regulates volume, composition, and pH of body fluids - removes metabolic waste from blood, helps control rate of red blood cell formation, regulates blood pressure, regulates absorption of calcium ions
kidneys
regulates movement of water and electrolytes between fluid compartments
hydrostatic (causes fluid to LEAVE) & osmotic pressure (causes fluid to RETURN)
all water and electrolytes inside cells
interstitial fluid
all fluid outside cells (interstitial spaces, blood vessels/plasma, lymphatic vessels/lymph)
extracellular fluid
cerebrospinal fluid of central nervous system, aqueous/vitreous humors of eyes, synovial fluid of joints, serous fluid in body cavities, fluid secretions of exocrine glands
transcellular fluid
40L
amount of water in human body
2/3 (63%) of water in body
interstitial fluid
1/3 (37%) of water in body
extracellular fluid
2,500 ml daily
average intake of water per day
urination
produces greatest amount of water loss
electrolytes that ionize in water and release hydrogen ions - ex: hydrocholoric acid of gastric juice
acids
substances that combine with hydrogen ions
bases
female - 52%, male - 63%
percent of water, by weight
adjusts proportion of acid and base to minimize pH changes - takes up hydrogen when fluid is more acidic, give up hydrogen when fluid is more alkaline
acid base buffer system
consists of 2 phosphate ions, dyhydrogen phosphate, and monohydrogen phosphate
phosphate buffer system
increase in pH of body fluids above 7.45
alkalosis
decrease in pH of body fluids (increase in acidity) below 7.35
acidosis
low blood sodium
hyponatremia
elevated blood potassium
hyperkalemia
fluid accumulation in tissue spaces - caused by hypoproteinemia, inflammation
edema
pH levels change -> breathing rate/depth rise & fall
respiratory center reaction
chromosomes replicated (46 chromosomes/2 chromatids) -> phase 1 - homologous pairs separated - prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase -> phase 2 - 2 cells from phase 1 divide again = 4 - prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase -> 23 chromosomes, each chromatid now independent chromosome
meiosis
produces male and female sex cells (sperm and oocytes/eggs)
meiosis
2 epididymides, 2 ductus deferentia, 2 ejaculatory ducts, urethra, 2 seminal vesicles, prostate gland, 2 bulbourethral glands
male accessory organs
bulbourethral fluids -> prostate fluids -> sperm cell fluids -> seminal vesicle fluids
emission/ejaculation sequence
pair of uterine tubes, uterus, vagina
female accessory organs
labia majora, labia minora, clitoris, vestibular glands
female external organs
stimulate enlargement of accessory organs, stimulate endometrium to thicken, develop/maintain secondary sex characteristics
estrogen
promotes changes in the uterus during female reproductive cycle, affects mammary glands, helps regulate secretion of gonadotropins from anterior pituitary
progesterone
product of sperm cell and secondary oocyte uniting
zygote
increase in size
growth
continuous process by which an individual changes from one life phase to another (includes growth)
development
200-600 million
sperm in 1 ejaculation
rapid cell division and distribution of zygote's cytoplasm into smaller cells
period of cleavage
cells produced by cleavage
blastomeres
ball of cells (blastomeres)
cleavage embryo
solid ball of about 16 cells
morula
ball of cells - hollowed out
blastocyst
body of developing offspring (part of blastocyst)
inner cell mass
develops into structures that assist embryo - form wall of blastocyst
trophoblast
nestling of blastocyst into uterine lining
implantation
forms between inner cell mass and trophoblast
amniotic cavity
when inner cell mass is flattened
embryonic disc
layers of embryonic disc - initial outer layer - ectoderm, inner layer - endoderm, later middle mesoderm forms - tissues from which all organs form
primary germ layers
after germ layers are formed..
gastrula
give rise to the nervous system, parts of special sensory organs, epidermis, hair, nails, glads of skin, linings of mouth and anal canal
ectoderm
form all types of muscle tissue, bone tissue, bone marrow, blood, blood vessels, lymp vessels, internal reproductive organs, kidneys, and mesothelium of body cavities
mesoderm
produce epithelial linings of digestive tract, respiratory tract, urinary bladder, urethra
endoderm
trophoblast + 2nd layer
chorion
forms blood cells and gives rise to what later become sex cells - attached to embryonic disc
yolk sac
extends from early yolk sac, forms blood cells, gives rise to umbilical arteries and vein
allantois
where blood in fetus is shunted through to bypass atrium
foramen ovale