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antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

secreted by posterior pituitary gland - enhances water conservation in kidneys

oxytocin (OT)

secreted by posterior pituitary gland - contracts smooth muscles in uterus & mammary glands


secreted by thyroid gland - regulates blood calcium concentration

thyroxine (T4)

(4 atoms of iodine) secreted by thyroid gland - INCREASE rate at which cells release energy, enhance rate of protein synthesis, and stimulate breakdown and mobilization of lipids

triiodothyronin (T3)

(3 atoms of iodine) secreted by thyroid gland - INCREASE rate at which cells release energy, enhance rate of protein synthesis, and stimulate breakdown and mobilization of lipids - more potent 5x than T4

parathyroid hormone (PTH)

secreted by parathyroid gland - helps regulate the level of blood calcium and phosphate ions

epinephrine (EPI)

secreted by adrenal medulla in times of stress

norepinephrine (NE)

secreted by adrenal medulla - neurotransmitter


secreted by adrenal cortex - a mineralocorticoid - regulates sodium and potassium ion concentration and fluid volume - stimulates kidney to retain sodium & excrete potassium

cortisol (hydrocortisone)

secreted by adrenal cortex - a glucocorticoid - affects glucose metabolism (stimulates glucose synthesis)- influences protein (decreases protein synthesis) & fat metabolism (increases fatty acid release)


secreted by pancreas - stimulates liver to break down glycogen into glucose and noncarbohydrates into glucose and fats into fatty acids/glycerol


secreted by pancreas - stimulates cells to take up glucose

somatostatin (SS)

secreted by pancreas - helps regulate carbohydrates - inhibits release of growth hormone

growth hormone (GH)

secreted by anterior pituitary - stimulates increase in size and rate of division of body cells - enhances movement of amino acids through membranes - promotes growth of long bones

prolactin (PRL)

secreted by anterior pituitary - sustains milk production after birth, amplifies effect of LH in males

thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)

secreted by anterior pituitary - controls secretion of hormones from thyroid gland

adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)

secreted by anterior pituitary - controls secretion of certain hormones from adrenal cortex

follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)

secreted by anterior pituitary - development of egg-containing follicles in ovaries - stimulates follicular cells to secrete estrogen - (males: stimulates production of sperm cells)

luteinizing hormone (LH)

secreted by anterior pituitary - promotes secretion of sex hormones - releases egg cell in females

corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)

secreted by hypothalamus - stimulates secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone from anterior pituitary

gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)

secreted by hypothalamus - stimulates secretion of FSH & LH from anterior pituitary

somatostatin (SS)

secreted by hypothalamus - inhibits release of growth hormone from anterior pituitary

growth-hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH)

secreted by hypothalamus - stimulates secretion of growth hormone from anterior pituitary

prolactin release-inhibiting hormone (PIH)

secreted by hypothalamus - inhibits release of prolactin from anterior pituitary - "dopamine"

thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH)

secreted by hypothalamus - regulates TSH secretion from anterior pituitary

prolactin-releasing factor (PRF)

secreted by hypothalamus - stimulates release of prolactin from anterior pituitary

controls anterior pituitary by releasing hormones


stimulates other endocrine glands to release hormones

anterior pituitary

controls posterior pituitary by nerve impulses


effects of sympathetic nerve impulses on the alimentary canal are

inhibitory, or slow down activity

effects of parasympathetic nerve impulses on the alimentary canal

stimulative, or cause increases in

loss of teeth is most commonly associated with diseases of the

gums and dental pulp

poor nutritional status of persons with limited economic resources is most likely related to a(n)

excessive use of carbohydrates

In order to lose one pound of fat, a person's diet must provide a deficit of

3,500 calories

Night blindness is most likely to be caused by a deficiency of

vitamin A

example of trace element


provides a short-term energy source after cellular glucose supplies are depleted


Hyperventilation is most likely to be accompanied by a(n)

decrease in blood CO2 concentration and a rise in pH

cartilage that marks the lowermost portion of the larynx

cricoid cartilage

lipoprotein that reduces surfaced tension within the alveoli so that they do not collapse during exhalation


basic rhythm of breathing is controlled by which portion of the brain

dorsal respiratory group of the medullary rhythmicity center

Whether oxygen diffuses from the alveoli into the blood or not is dependent upon

the partial pressure of all gases in the atmosphere and blood

enzyme carbonic anhydrase causes

carbon dioxide to react with water

intensity (volume) of a vocal sound is a result of the

force of air passing over the vocal cords

most important protein, physiologically, in the transport of carbon dioxide by blood

carbonic anhydrase

Laryngitis is a potentially dangerous condition because it may cause

obstruction of the airway

procedure used to directly examine the trachea and bronchial tree is called


hormone ADH functions to promote water reabsorption through the wall(s) of the

distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct

parts of a renal tubule in the correct sequence from beginning to end

proximal convoluted tubule, descending limb, ascending limb, distal convoluted tubule

order of structures through which urine flows after its formation in the nephron

calyx, renal pelvis, ureter, urinary bladder, urethra

increase the rate of glomerular filtration

increased blood pressure

tangled cluster of blood capillaries

renal corpuscle

highly coiled tubule that leads away from the glomerular capsule

renal tubule

reabsorption of glucose occurs primarily through the walls of the

proximal convoluted tubule

Site of filtrate formation


Secondarily important site of tubular reabsorption

distal convoluted tubule

Primary site of tubular reabsorption

proximal convoluted tubule

Structure that conveys the processed filtrate (urine) to the renal pelvis

collecting duct

countercurrent mechanism functions primarily in the

nephron loop

The largest quantity of hydrogen ions is secreted

actively into the proximal convoluted

primary stimulus for the secretion of aldosterone is

rising potassium concentration

most helpful in treating hypocalcemia

administering high doses of vitamin D

Compared to males who train for endurance events, females who train for such events typically

maintain a higher percentage of body

One of the more common causes of female infertility is failure of ovulation due to hyposecretion of hormones from the

anterior pituitary gland

Undifferentiated spermatogenic cells


last fluid to be expelled from the urethra during ejaculation comes from

seminal vesicles

Male reproductive functions are controlled mainly by hormones from the hypothalamus, and

anterior pituitary gland and testes

paired male genital structures

seminal vesicle, vas deferens, bulbourethral gland

In females, what structure is located immediately anterior to the vagina

pubic symphysis

cell commonly called the egg, or ovum

secondary oocyte

most commonly used oral contraceptives contain

synthetic estrogen and progesterone

cells of a blastocyst that give rise to the body of the developing offspring constitute the

inner cell mass (ICM)

provides the main source of energy for a newborn during its first few days


Following birth, bradykinin is released from the newborn's lungs in response to

an increasing concentration of oxygen in
aortic blood

placenta is composed of tissues from the

mother & embryo

major difference between fetal blood flow and adult blood flow is that in the fetus the

inferior vena cava contains blood high
in oxygen

adult structure not derived from the same primary germ layer


inner cell mass within a blastocyst is significant in that it

gives rise to the embryo

placenta synthesizes progesterone from


Following birth, the infant's metabolic rate

increases and its oxygen consumption

ductus arteriosus allows fetal blood to move from the

pulmonary trunk into the aorta

Which ventricle wall of the heart would be the thickest upon inspection?


abnormal increase in white blood cells


Veins which drain the liver


endocrine gland regulates the ovarian cycle

anterior pituitary

arteries serve tissues external to the skull?

external carotid

endocrine gland(s) control secondary sexual characteristics

both ovaries and testes

artery serves most of the small intestine

superior mesenteric

artery or arteries supply the brain

vertebral and internal carotid

low abnormal red blood cell count


acts on target cell by diffusing through membrane, entering nucleus, combining w/ receptor molecule -> binds to DNA, transcribes RNA, RNA enters cytoplasm and directs protein synthesis -> hormone effects

steroid hormones

body fluid carries hormone to target cell, combine w/ receptor on membrane, activates G protein, adenylate cyclase circulizes ATP into cyclic AMP which activates protein kinases -> effects

nonsteroid hormones

blood clotting due to damage to vessel or tissue

extrinsic clotting mechanism

blood clotting due to contact with foreign substance

intrinsic clotting mechanism

major event in blood clot formation

conversion of fibrinogen (factor 1) into fibrin

trigger (damage or contact) -> initiation (thromboplastin or Hageman factor) -> series of reactions involving clotting factors (produces prothrombin activator) -> prothrombin activator + calcium ions convert prothrombin to thrombin -> thrombin causes fragmentation then joining of fibrinogen to fibrin -> fibrin clot

steps in clot formation

plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets

components of blood

antigen A absent - antibody anti-A produced, antigen B absent - antibody anti-B produced

determining blood type

universal recipient - has both antigen A and B

type AB

universal donor - has neither antigen A or B

type O

transport cholesterol from tissue cells (arteries) to liver for disposal in bile - GOOD cholesterol

HDL - high-density-lipoprotein

transport cholesterol to body cells where they are used in various ways - BAD cholesterol

LDL - low-density-lipoprotein

vena cava ->right atrium -> right atrioventricular orifice -> right ventricle -> pulmonary valve -> pulmonary trunk -> capilllaries of lungs

path of blood from vena cava to lungs

SA node -> AV node-> AV bundle -> Purkinje fibers

sequence of cardiac impulses

tricuspid/mitral valve closes, blood passes through pulmonary/aortic valve into capillaries/aorta

when ventricular walls contract..

outer layer of heart - protects, reduces friction


middle layer of heart - thick, cardiac muscle tissue that pumps blood out of chambers


inner layer of heart - epithelium underlying connecive tissue, blood vessels, Purkinje fibers - lines heart chambers/covers structures


recording of electrical changes in myocardium during cardiac cycle

ECG - electrocardiogram

depolarization of atrial fibers

P wave

baseline after depolarization

QRS complex

depolarization of ventricular fibers

Q, R, S waves

ventricular fiber REpolarization

T wave

contractions of ventricles

when blood pressure is greatest

largest lymphatic organ (filled w/blood instead of lymph) - filters blood - macrophages destroy foreign particles, lymphocytes defend against infection


immunity naturally acquired - recipient's cells DO NOT produce antibodies (ex: antiserum shot, newborn immunity through breastmilk)

passive immunity

immunity in which recipient's cell DO produce antibodies (ex: vaccine)

active immunity

immunity acquired from contact with live pathogens or passed from mother to fetus

natural immunity

immunity in which vaccine cells stimulate immune response (also comes from gama globulin injection)

artificial immunity

80% of antibodies, in plasma/tissue fluid, defends against bacteria, viruses, toxins, activates complement

Immunoglobulin G

13% of antibodies - defends against bacteria/viruses

Immunoglobulin A

reacts with antigens on some RBC membranes following mismatched blood transfusion, activates complement

Immunoglobulin M

on surfaces of most B cells/lymphocytes - acts as antigen receptor - activates B cells

Immunoglobulin D

in exocrine gland secretions with IgA - associated with allergic reactions - promotes inflammation

Immunoglobulin E

teeth best for biting off large pieces of food


largest internal organ - reddish brown in color -mostly functions in metabolism - uses fatty acids to speed up lipid metabolism -> triglycerides


vitamins A, D, E, and K - dissolve in fats

fat-soluble vitamins

important in vision - deficiency may cause night blindness

vitamin A

iron, manganese, copper, iodine, cobalt, zinc, fluorine, slenium, chromium

trace elements

microminerals essential - found in minute amounts (less than .005% of the body weight)

trace elements

200-300 grams daily consumed --> 125-175 grams needed

typical carbohydrate amount in U.S. diet

breathing (ventilation) - movement of air from outside body into bronchial tree & alveoli, followed by reversal of air movement


atmospheric pressure due to the weight of the air causes


"elastic recoil" of lung tissues and surface tension causes


volume of air that enters or leaves during a respiratory cycle

tidal volume

amount of air remaining in the lungs after expiration

residual volume

vital capacity (max a person can exhale after deep breath) plus the residual volume (about 5,800 mL)

total lung capacity

lung with 3 lobes (divided by fissures) - superior, middle, inferior lobes

right lung

lung with 2 lobes - superior, inferior lobes

left lung

speeds the reaction between CO2 and water

carbonic anhydrase

low intrapleural pressure, no significant space

holds visceral and parietal membranes together

passageway for food moving from oral cavity to esophagus and for air passing between nasal cavity and larynx - aids in producing sounds of speech - subdivisions: nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharynx


enlargement in the airway superior to trachea - passageway for air moving in and out of trachea and prevents foreign objects from entering - houses vocal cords.


thyroid, cricoid, epiglottic - largest/single ; arytenoid, corniculate, cuneiform - paired

larynx cartilages

1. nerve impulses travel on phrenic nerves to muscle fibers in diaphragm, contracting them / 2. diaphragm moves downward, thoracic cavity expands / 3. external intercostal muscles may contract, raising ribs and expanding thoracic cavity further / 4. intra-alveolar pressure decreases / 5. atmospheric pressure forces air into respiratory tract through air passages / 6. lungs fill with air

events in inspiration

part of a nephron - consists of a filtering unit composed of tangled cluster of blood capillaries (glomerulus) & surrounding thin-walled, saclike structure (glomerular capsule)

renal corpuscle

wastes, excess water, electrolytes


part of kidneys concentrating urine - ensures medullary interstitial fluid becomes hypertonic - found in nephron loops

countercurrent mechanism

regulates volume, composition, and pH of body fluids - removes metabolic waste from blood, helps control rate of red blood cell formation, regulates blood pressure, regulates absorption of calcium ions


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