128 terms

Intro to Sociology Final

an organized collection of individuals and institutions, bounded by space in a coherent territory, subject to the same political authority, and organized through a shared set of cultural expectations and values
Goffman's Dramaturgy
our performances change according to the characters on stage at the moment
Impression Management
actively trying to control how other perceive me by changing my behavior to correspond to an ideal of what they will find most appealing
Ascribed Status
status that we receive involuntarily, without regard to our unique talents, skills, or accomplishments
Achieved Status
status that we attain through talent, ability, effort, or other unique characteristics
Master Status
status that is presumed so important that it overshadows all of the others
Role Strain
when the same role had demands and expectations that contradict each other
Role Conflict
when we try to play different roles with extremely different or contradictory rules at the same time
Role Exit
process of adjustment that takes place when we move out of such a role
an assortment of people who share the same norms, values, and expectations
aggregate of individuals who happen to be together but experience themselves as essentially independent
Primary Groups
group of friends and family that come together for expressive reasons
Secondary Groups
group of co-workers or club members who come together for instrumental reasons
group I feel positively toward and to which I actually belong
group which I do not belong and do not feel very positively towards
Reference Groups
group toward which we are so strongly committed or one that commands so much prestige that we orient our actions around what we perceive that groups perceptions would be
Strength of Weak Ties (Granovetter)
it's not only your strong ties (people who actually know you) that most influence your life, but possibly, centrally, your weak ties (people who you only know of, or they only know of you)
Coercive Organization
organization where membership is not voluntary
Normative Organization
typically voluntary organization; members receive no monetary rewards and often have to pay to join
Utilitarian Organization
organization in which we belong for a specific, instrumental purpose, a tangible material reward
Diffusion of Responsibility
tends to occur in groups of people above a certain critical size when responsibility is not explicitly assigned
Characteristics of Bureaucracy (Weber)
Division of Labor, Hierarchy of Authority (job descriptions), Rules and Regulations, Impersonality, Career Ladders, Efficiency and Productivity
Problems with Bureaucracy (Weber)
Overspecialization, Rigidity and Inertia (stuck/lack of change), Ritualism (loss of meaning), Suppression of Dissent, The Bureaucratic "Catch-22" (more rules and regulationsthe less efficient)
Bureaucracy Personality (Merton)
those people who become more committed to following the correct procedures than they are in getting the job done aka ritualists
breaking a social rule or refuses to follow one/acting against the norms of a society; most of this is not illegal
acting against the current written laws of a society; not always deviant
attribute that changes you from a whole and usual person to a tainted and discounted one
Minstrelization Stigma
exaggerate the difference between the stigmatized and the dominant group
Normification Stigma
process by which one minimizes the differences between the stigmatized groups
Militant Chauvinism Stigma
maximize differences between the stgimatized groups by saying that they are better
Functions of Crime for Society (Durkheim)
Affirms cultural norms and values, Clarifies moral boundaries, Heightens group solidarity, Encourages social change
Differential Association (Deviance Theory)
deviance theory where it is a matter of rewards and punishment
Control Theory (Deviance Theory)
deviance theory where decision of whether or not to engage in an act by weighing the potential outcome
Labeling Theory (Deviance Theory)
deviance theory where the social context that determines whether an act is considered deviant or not and how much punishment it warrants
Conflict Theory (Deviance Theory)
deviance theory where it rests on a larger structural analysis of inequalities based on class, or race, or gender for their explanation of crime
Strain Theory (Deviance Theory)
deviance theory where there is conflict between accepted norms and social reality
Opportunity Theory (Deviance Theory)
deviance theory where crime arises from opportunity to commit crime
Broken Windows Theory (Deviance Theory)
deviance theory of how social controls can systematically weaken, and minor acts of deviance can spiral into sever crime and societal decay
Criminal Subcultures Theory (Deviance Theory)
deviance theory where criminals (such as gang members) not being socialized with the same norms and values as non-criminals (such as non-gang members)
White Collar/Corporate Crime
illegal actions of a corporation or people acting on its behalf
Street Crime
illegal actions usually in public places (assault, burglary, prostitution, drug possession, etc.)
Hate Crimes
criminal act committed by an offender motivated by bias against race, ethnicity, religion, sexual orientation, or disability status
system in which those at who are the most deserving of reward or praise will rise to the top and those who are less so will sink to the bottom
Marx's Theories of Social Class
social class of Bourgeoisie (owners) and Proletariat (workers)
Weber's Theories of Social Class
social class of Class Position (Wealth vs. Income), Status (Prestige, Status Symbols), Power (Party; Dimensions of Power)
Social Class (SES) in the United States
(income, assets, occupation, education, affiliations, etc.) middle class is ideal, but income has not kept up with inflation, home ownership, job prospects, investments and retirements, and health care are all iffy, growing gap between rich & middle/poor
Social Mobility in the United States
(the ability to move up or down in the rankings), increasingly downward due to global outsourcing, downsizing, shift from manufacturing to service/knowledge economy
1964 Formula for Poverty Line
what minimum wage is based on, never updated, 1/3 food, 1/3 shelter, 1/3 clothes; doesn't take into account child care, medical care, transportation, skyrocketing rents, and the variation of cost of living by region
Poverty in the United States
most are not ethnic minorities, most welfare recipients are white and female, most poor people are not unemployed, most poor live in rural areas, single or divorced mothers are more likely to be poor, children are more likely to be poor
Individual Explanation of Poverty
explanation of poverty that says people are poor because they lack something (such as initiative, drive, ambition, discipline); they are unmotivated and lazy
Cultural Explanation of Poverty
explanation of poverty that argues that poverty is not a result of individual inadequacies but of larger social and cultural factors
Structural/Sociological Explanation of Poverty
explanation of poverty that says people are unmotivated because they are poor; no matter how hard they try the cards are always stacked against them, so they eventually just give up
Working Poor (Ehrenreich)
those who are maintain employment but also remain poor due to low levels of pay and dependant expenses
Main point of Race:The Power of Illusion, Episode 1 video
people may be more similar genetically to someone of another race/color/ethnicity than their own, so we're not that different, we may even be more similar than you think
Race (Sociological)
classified by physical characteristics
Ethnicity (Sociological)
classified by cultural characteristics
Race (Social)
classified by assumptions of biological distinctions
Ethnicity (Social)
classified by assumptions of cultural distinctions
Origins of Taboo Against Racial Mixing
racial segregation, when the laws were lifted the ideology of segregation was still in the heads of many
1967 Loving v. Virginia
state banned interracial marriage, cohabitation, and sex until this court case
Legal Definition of "white" in the early United States
"white" people from England, Germany, and Scandinavia, but not from other parts of Europe
Legal Definition of "black" in the early United States
"black" people from Africa
Treatment of Early Immigrant Groups in the United States (Caucasian)
denied jobs and places to live, in the South many were lynched along with Blacks, looked at as born criminals, lazy, and savaged
minority groups abandon their cultural traditions altogether embracing the dominant culture
Cultural Pluralism
to live side by side but to keep different cultural practices alive
White Privilege (Peggy McIntosh)
hidden privileges of being Caucasian. The author explains how many whites are oblivious to these hidden tools and benefits that get them to the top because they are raised and molded not to see them.
Matrix of Domination (Patricia Hills Collins)
an interlocking system of control in which each type of inequality reinforces the others so that the impact of one cannot be fully understood without also considering the others
prejudice that is systematically applied to members of a group
Subtle Racism
a set of mental categories that we possess about the "other" based on stereotypes
Overt Racism
manifests in behaviors such as discrimination, or the refusal to associate with members of that group
generalization about a group that is oversimplified and exaggerated
set of beliefs and attitudes that cause us to negatively prejudge people based on their social location
set of actions based on prejudice and stereotypes
Conclusion About Race From W.E.B. Du Bois' Study The Philadelphia Negro
"race" is a social concept (socially constructed), structural conditions are not biology
Postindustrial Economy
an economy where automated machinery is substantially reducing and sometimes eliminating the need for human labor in production
Knowledge Economy
an economy less oriented around the actual production of a commodity and more concerned with the idea of the commodity
Service Economy
an economy dominated by services rather than goods
corporations derive raw materials from all over the world and use manufacturing and assembly plants in many different countries
Knowledge Work
less oriented around the actual production of a commodity; more concerned with the idea of a commodity and marketing and distributing it to consumers
moved workers into the wide world and out of factories
contracting out to another company work that had once been done internally by your company
Multinational Corporations
they operate through a network of offices all over the world
Main Point of the Video The Story of Stuff
a lot of things are wasted so try to cut back
Traditional Authority (Weber)
type of power that draws its legitimacy from tradition
Charismatic Authority (Weber)
type of power in which people obey because of the personal characteristics of the leader
Authoritarian Systems
Monarchy, Oligarchy, Dictatorship, and Totalitarianism
rule by single individual
rule of a small group of people, an elite social class or often a single family
ruled by one person who has no hereditary claim to rule
when political authority is extended over all other aspects of life including culture, the arts, and social relations
Forms of Democracy
Participatory, Representative, and Illiberal
every person gets one vote and the majority rules
citizens elect representatives to make the decisions for them
officials are elected by the people, but they pay so little attention to the constitution and other laws and to the opinion of their constituents that the country might as well be an oligarchy
Corruption in Political Systems
has little to do with whether a country is democratic or not and more to do with whether a country is poor or not (misuse of government funds, obey special interest groups instead of the people, and outside interests donate large sums of money)
Iron Law of Oligarchy (Michels)
no matter how democratic or authoritarian they may have been in the beginning, they all tend toward oligarchy
Party Affiliation
people are often socialized into their party affiliations based on class, education, race, and gender
Voting Patterns
The USA has the lowest voter turnout among democratic countries (however, the 2008 election had the highest voter turnout in decades)
Interest Groups
promote their interest among state and national legislators and often to influence public opinion
Terrorism as Political Tactic/New Form of War
publicizing political agenda, demands for change, or causing as much damage to the enemy as possible; see violence as a letitimate political tactic
Social Movements
collective attempts to further a common interest or secure a common goal through action outside the sphere of established institutions
Social Revolutions
changes of the social basis of political power; it changes the social groups or classes that political power rests on
Commonalities Between Religion and Science
Organized social institutions/systems of though, Claims to "truth" that govern our conduct, Professional practitioners, highly educated, "academic" subcultures, complex "rituals", Both resist change but do change over time
Function of Religion (Durkheim)
"social glue" (religion "integrates" society), creates a sense of unity, Sacred Rituals (holy), Profane Rituals (secular/not religious)
Religion and Social Control (Marx)
Religions keep social change from happening, prevents people from revolting even in miserable conditions of their lives, Religion provides a justification for the inequality
Religion and Social Change (Weber)
Religion causes change
Religion and Capitalism (Weber)
Protestantism (direct relationship with God, work hard to "prove" worthiness, attain wealth but spend thrifty, and you never know God's plan for you); The Protestant Ethic and The Spirit of Capitalism
forms around a specific person or idea drawn from an established religion
small subculture within an established religious institution
large-scale, extremely organized religious body
religion that is so pervasive (spread) that the boundary between state and church is nonexistent
Western and Eastern Religions
Exclusive, Evangelical, Syncretic, and Non-Evangelistic
Exclusive Religions
religion where only one "true" faith, all others are invalid
Evangelical Religions
religion where they want you to choose their faith based on one sacred book, concepts of heaven and hell, one lifetime only, has "holiest day"
Syncretic Religions
religion where it is perfectly acceptable to practice multiple religions at once, fewer religion wars
Non-Evangelistic Religions
religion where attraction is not promotion (with a few exceptions); no concept of heaven or hell, many lifetimes (reincarnation), many gods (or many emanations of a single god), no special holy day
Secularization Thesis
as societies become more modern, religion would decline
Global Religious Resurgence
the secularization theory was incorrect, religiosity seems to be increasing across the globe
The United States and Religion
only industrialized country where religiosity is not declining
Third Great Awakening
religious revival that further democratizes spirituality, making a relationship with the sacred attainable to even greater numbers of Americans
Liberation Theology
focuses on Jesus not only as savior but specifically as the savior of the poor and oppressed and emphasizes the Christian mission of bringing justice to the poor
Paradigm Shift (Kuhn)
a change in basic assumptions within the ruling theory of science
Merton's Typology
Matrix of Domination
Legal-Rational Authority (Weber)
leaders are to be obeyed not primarily as representatives of tradition or because of their personal qualities, but because they are voicing a set of rationally derived laws
Primary deviance
any minor, usually unnoticed, act of deviance committed irregularly that does not have an impact on one's self-identity or how one is labeled by others
Secondary deviance
the moment when someone acquired a deviant identity, occurring when he or she repeatedly breaks a norm, and people start making a big deal of it, so the rule breaking can no longer be attributed to a momentary lapse in judgment or justifiable under the circumstances but is an indication of a permanent personality trait
Tertiary deviance
occurs when members of a group formerly labeled deviant attempt to redefine their acts, attributes, or identities as normal-even virtuous