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What is the most satiation macronutrient? Satiation is the feeling of satisfaction and fullness that occurs during a meal and halts eating.

Intrinsic factor

which of the following is required for the absorption of dietary vitamin B12? (bile, lipase, intrinsic factor, or carboxypeptidase)

Vitamin B6

what vitamin is involved intensively in amino acid metabolism. (biotin, vitamin a, vit B6, or riboflavin)

raise HDL cholesterol

high doses of nicotinic acid are known to __ __ ___

supports blood clotting

in what chief capacity does vitamin k function? (supports blood clotting, as a coenzyme for energy metabolism, an antioxidant, or in epithelial tissue renewal.)

environmental factors in obesity

The rate of obesity has been rising while the gene pool has remained relatively constant.

he has central obesity

Jenny is 34 years old, and has a BMI of 28. Her body type could be described as "pear-like." John is 55 years old with a BMI of 28, and a body type that is "apple-like." Why is John more likely to be at a risk for chronic diseases like CVD?


Which of the following compounds serves as the major precursor for the body's synthesis of vitamin D? (cholesterol, tryptophan, beta-carotene, or eicosapentanoic acid)

intestinal bacteria

Biotin can be synthesized by __ ___ (avidin, the skin, the liver, or intestinal bacteria)


while researching your southern family history, you find that your grandmother had a sister how died young. The symptoms leading up to her death included diarrhea, dermatitis, and dementia. Because the family led a poor, corn-farming existence, you suspect this relative died of ___ (scurvy, cancer, pellagra, or beriberi)

Microwave or steam vegetables

What is the best method of cooking vegetables to minimize the loss of b-vitamins and its stability?

60 minutes

to help prevent body fat gain, the DRI suggests daily, moderately intense, physical activities totaling __ __.

free radical

___ ___ is a molecule with at least one unpaired electron.

Pumpkin pie

what is a good source of vitamin A?


what is the healthy range of body fat for normal-weight women?


As a general rule, what minimum number of kcalories per day is necessary to ensure nutritional adequacy in an eating plan for reducing body weight?

Energy release from energy-yielding nutrients

Which of the following functions has a requirement for thiamin? (Blood coagulation, formation of red blood cells, energy release from energy-yielding nutrients, or formation of epithelial cell mucopolysaccharieds)

weight loss

reducing daily energy intake and increasing energy expenditure is the best approach to ___ ___

illness with a fever

Which of the following INCREASES the metabolic rate? (an illness that causes a fever, fasting, sleeping, or rapid weight loss)


a person who exhibits a physiological need to eat is most likely experiencing the sensation of

Erythrocyte hemolysis (or hemolytic anemia)

What disorder may result from vitamin E deficiency in people?


what tissue contains the majority of the body's store of vitamin A

200 mg

How much vitamin C is provided by approx. 5 servings of fruits and vegetables and is the amount needed to saturate blood concentrations?


A deficiency of which of the following vitamins results in accumulation of homocysteine in the blood? (Folate, biotin, niacin, or vitamin K)

ultraviolet light

Riboflavin is most easily destroyed when exposed to __ ___

Cofactor in collagen formation

In what capacity does vitamin C function?

high-kcal diet plus regular exercise

what is the most important strategy for an underweight person who wishes to achieve a healthy body weight?

chronic inflammation

___ ___ accompanies obesity and promotes the development of metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance.

active 30 year old male

Which of the individuals would have the highest basal metabolic rate? (30 year old male at 200 lbs who is very muscular and physically active, 30 year old male at 200 lbs who is sedentary, or a 30 year old female at 140 lbs who is very muscular and physically active)


Adverse effects on organs such as the liver from the presence of excess body fat is known as


Beri-beri is caused by a deficiency of __.


According to nationally representative data collected by the CDC, approx what percent of the U.S. adult population is currently considered overweight or obese?

vitamin D

What vitamin promotes calcium and phosphorus absorption and promotes calcium mobilization from bone?


What food substance can be converted to vitamin A in the body?

gastrointestinal discomfort (gas and diarrhea)

The medication known as Orlistat inhibits the activity of pancreatic lipase. What is a common side effect of taking this medication?

2 or more risk factors

Aggressive treatment should be introduced in obese people if they have which of the following risk factores? (impaired glucose tolerance only, a family history of heart disease only, High LDL and low HDL only, or two or more of the listed risk factors)


What is the major carrier of the fat-soluble vitamins from the intestinal epithelial cell to the circulation?


What fraction of the day's energy expenditure of the average person is represented by his/her basal metabolism?

Vitamin D

which of the following compounds is known to function as a hormone? (vitmain D, vit K, phylloquinone, or alpha-tocopherol)

Folate found in dietary supplements

What is the most bio-available form of folate?

blood levels of leptin correlate directly with body fat

What describes a relationship between leptin and energy balance?

inhibition of oxidation (both are antioxidants)

What function is shared by beta-carotene and vitamin E?

1 lb

What would be the approx. weight gain of a person who consumes an excess of 500 kcals daily for 1 week?

metabolism remains elevated for several hours.

What is the body's response to engaging in intense and vigorous physical activity?


___ can be synthesized in the body from the essential amino acid tryptophan


what food makes the greatest contribution to riboflavin intake?

purging is rarely practiced in binge-eating

What is the primary factor that differentiates bulimia nervosa from binge eating?

adipocyte number

In the quest for achieving desirable body weight, adults have control over all of the following except: (diet, behavior, physical activity, or adipocyte number)

accesses are eliminated from the body by the kidney in urine

All of the following are general characteristics of fat-soluble vitamins EXCEPT: (accesses are eliminated from the body by the kidney in urine, once absorbed, fat soluble vits must first enter the lymphatic system then the blood, consumption of large amounts every once in a while prevents deficiency, or they can be stored in relatively large amounts in the liver and fatty tissues)


Because the causes of obesity include both genetic and environmental factors, the best approach seems to be ___


A function most B-vitmains share is that they act as ___

hot dog

which of the following foods is a source of vitamin B12? (pecans, hot dog, cauliflower, or whole-grain bread)

anorexia nervosa

most deny their condition and have a heavily distorted body image

BMI (Body Mass Index)

an index of a person's weight in relation to height

The number of fat cells decreases when energy expenditure is greater than energy intake

All of the following describes the behavior of fat cells EXCEPT (The # of fat cells decreases when energy expenditure is greater than energy intake, the size of fat cells is larger in obese people than it is in healthy-weight people, the storage capacity for fat in the human body depends on both the # and size of fat cells, or the # of fat cells increases several-fold during the growth years and tapers off when adult status is reached)

eating smaller portions quickly

All of the following are behavior modifications for losing weight EXCEPT: (shopping only when not hungry, eating only in one place in one room, participating in activities such as television viewing only when not eating, or taking smaller portions of food but always eating everything on the plate quickly.)


The appearance of vitamin B12 deficiency symptoms may be delayed or 'masked' due to high intake of ____

6 months

In a weight reduction regimen, the most realistic time frame for losing 10% of initial body weight is __ __

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