WSU Foundations of Reading MTEL
MTEL prep using the terms and definitions from the Early Lit & Reading class
Terms in this set (86)
the awareness that in addition to meaning languages are composed of sound units of varying sizes: whole sentences, words, syllables, rimes. No letters needed.
a particular kind of phonological awareness but only at the level of the phoneme, the smallest unit of sound in a language, no letters are needed to be aware of sounds.
a phonological (not phonemic) awareness skill where students recognize that some words sound alike. The onsets of these words do not need to be the same. E.g. shoe, too, chew, and do
a particular type of phonemic awareness involving separating syllables or words into their separate phonemes. E.g. bike = /b/ /i/ and /k/
a phonemic task which is the opposite of segmenting. /b/ /i/ /k/ make bike
the phonemic awareness task of eliminating one phoneme from a larger unit of language e.g. saying bat without the /b/ and then saying /at/
the phonemic awareness task of swapping one phoneme for another, saying /bat/ with an /m/ instead of a /b/ results in mat
the consonants that precede rimes e.g. the /bl /in blue , /ch/ in chew, the /m/ in mat
the part of syllables that begin with the vowel and extend to the end of the syllable. E.g.the /ew/ in chew or the /oo/ in too or in a multisyllabic word the /un/ and the /ay/ in Sunday
the parts of words that contain one and only one vowel sound e.g. hat has one, but so does heat. Heat has two vowel letters but only one vowel sound. Kindergarten children learn to beat them out. E.g. vacation is a three beat word.
teaching plans that are direct and transparent, they are planned ahead and teachers model segmenting and blending isolated letter sounds
spontaneous, taught as needed, with no isolation of letter sounds
the repetition of the first sound in a series of words e.g. silly, sad, city
the repetition of vowel sounds usually in the middles or ends of words without rhyming e.g. lake, made, and play
the repetition of a consonant sound typically in the middles or ends of words. e.g. making, school, and black
the print of everyday life; the signs, symbols, numbers, and colors all around us (i.e., street signs, company logos)
the recognition that phonemes (sounds) are represented by graphemes (letters and letter pairs) and that graphemes represent phonemes. It is NOT simply knowledge of the letters of the alphabet or letter names.
Book handling skills
knowing how to handle a book and how books "work" (i.e., front and back cover, left to right sweep)
Tracking the text
When readers read left to write, top to bottom with return sweep and they are recognizing (maybe whispering) a word for each word in the text, they are ____. Some beginning (emergent) readers allow their voices (when they are whisper reading) to get ahead of the text making predictions about what the text says and skip words as they go. For these readers, having them 'finger-point' to each word as they go, matching a word in the text with their voices, often helps them learn to ______.
the smallest unit of sound in a language, it is usually noted within // marks to denote the sound vs. the name of the letter. /sh/ is one ___ although two letters
the written symbol (letter) that denotes a phoneme. E.g. b is the ____ that denotes /b/, ea is the ____ that denotes the long e in bead and the short e in head. _____s may be constructed of more than one letter e.g. the ea in bead or head or the sh in sheep.
One to one
There is a _____ correspondence between graphemes and phonemes
two consonants usually including an h that produce one sound, a _______ does NOT blend, e.g th, ch, sh, ph, and the gh in rough. Some experts incluce ck and wh.
2 or 3 consonants that blend together, e.g. bl or nd, all sounds are still heard
the process of recognizing a written word using word analysis skills
the process of writing a word using word analysis skills, aka spelling
meaning clues found within phrases or sentences
grammatical clues found within phrases or sentences e.g. The big gray _________ ran down the road. Using _________, any noun would fill the blank, using semantic clues, dog or horse would fill the blank.
The state of MA favors EXPLICIT phonics instruction. Type the opposite of no.
______ phonics instruction: teachers model word recognition with separate sounds that are then blended together.
______ phonics instruction: teachers base instruction on known words, sounds are never isolated. I believe the state of MA favors SYNTHETIC phonics instruction.
morphemes or affixes that come before the base or root word and alters its meaning, the most common are de- ir im- in - re- and un- We can run or we can rerun, construct or deconstruct
these morphemes or affixes follow the base or root word and come in two categories: inflected endings or derivational endings
suffixes that are further categorized by five grammatical functions: plurality (s or es), verb tense (ed, s, es, and ing), possession ('s, s'), comparison (er, est) and the adverb ly ________ make sentences more grammatically acceptable. ELL students struggle with these.
prefixes or suffixes, are added to base or root words to change their meanings or grammatical functions
the smallest unit of meaning in a language. Suffixes, roots, bases and prefixes are all _________. Free __________ can stand alone such as base words but bound ____________ must be attached to another word such as affixes or root words. The word sandboxes has 3: Sand, Box and es
a free morpheme that captures the bulk of the meaning in a word. E.g. the _______ in rerun is run, in misunderstood is understood, Compound words have two _______s within them e.g. sandbox or playground
this definition has changed since the concept of the base word was constructed. Base words are free morphemes but ________ are bound morphemes and they also capture the bulk of the meaning in a word. Examples are vis meaning to see in visual or invisible and aud which means hear in audio or audience.
words that are spelled or look the same but sound different E.g. tear the paper and a tear re crying
words that sound alike but are spelled differently E.g. to too and two are spelled differently
clues that help determine either 1. word identification or 2. meaning based on the meaning and grammatical structure of the surrounding words.
a fill in the blank exercise that helps students to use context clues sometimes combined with the initial grapheme to predict the word in the blank. E.g. The big, gray d-____ ran down the street. One has to use semantic (meaning), syntax (grammar), and the initial onset d- to predict the word that belongs in the sentence.
breaking longer words down by morphemes: prefix, root or base and suffix. This is also known as morphemic analysis
most experts believe that we should develop ________ not only because it is important for children to become expressive and articulate but also because __________ development has a direct impact on reading and writing. This is especially important for the development of new or finely tuned word meanings (meaning vocabulary).
wise and thoughtful sayings that have a thematic quality. Examples: A stitch in time saves time. Or Better safe than sorry
sayings that cannot be taken literally. They are intended figuratively. E.g. It is raining cats and dogs. One has to infer the meaning and not take them literally. These are very challenging for ELL students
the explicit meaning of a word. The _________ of sweet is a sugary taste.
suggested or associated with a word (not the explicit meaning). The ______ of sweet is good or fine.
the study of the meaning and history of words, e.g. roots. Most scientific words are of Greek ___________.
this is a graphic organizer that a teacher constructs with children by brainstorming their associations with a particular concept. The teacher puts the new large concept in the center and then records the children's associations by making a web or map. Everyone learns from each other.
reading with good rate, accuracy (aka automaticity) and with good intonation aka prosody. Accurate fast word recognition contributes. Necessary but not sufficient for comprehension.
language that is not literal, e.g. similes, metaphors, idioms, use of symbolism and often imagery, and usually requires making inferences to understand.
language that is right there, explicit, no inferencing needed
language that requires readers to combine literal language with prior knowledge or to make connections that are not explicit. If the author writes, Mary felt sick. She went to bed. The author implied and the reader should infer that Mary went to bed BECAUSE she was sick. This cause effect relationship is inferred.
goes beyond the text. The reader makes a judgment or draws an original conclusion. It is open ended and high level. It requires creative or critical thinking. (e.g. when we decide that a particular author is a racist is often based on ___________ vs. literal thinking.)
elements of literature
the components that make a story a story: characterization, setting, theme, plot, and also style and point of view (or voice)
the time and place where the story takes place, it can be the antagonist of the story
typically the problem solution structure that begins with an initiating event and contains episodes that climax and then resolve.
the central underlying important idea of the story; stories may have one or more. Often the reason the author wrote the story.
authors' telling about the character by presenting the character's thoughts, or by showing the interaction of the character with other characters. Characters must be believable even in fantasies.
point of view
the perspective from which the story is told, aka voice
the techniques the author uses to write, e.g. use of figurative language such as imagery, metaphor, simile, symbolism or use of poetic language, rhyme, length of sentences, or use of descriptive language
rule of three
many traditional stories are based on three of something, three wishes, three pigs, three blind mice, three little kittens
a category of literature: fantasy, realistic fiction, historical fiction. traditional literature such as folk tales, fables, fairy tales, myths, legends
traditional stories in which the characters are animals and there is an explicit morale or lesson
the overall feeling of a story
a backward literary reference from the story you are reading now to a classic story or the Bible.
are simply books you can find in book stores or libraries. They are authentic texts written and illustrators by real authors and illustrators. They are not basals.
are reading materials, often anthologies of bound together stories, prepared by publishers and sold to school systems to teach reading. They come with very big teachers' manuals that guide teachers' instruction and assessment of students.
cause and effect
a relationship between ideas where one idea is caused by another, these can be present in both narrative/literary texts and in expository texts
compare and contrast
a relationship between ideas where two or more ideas are compared, what do they have in common, where are they different?
a time line of events, what happened first, second, etc.
problem solution structure
the type of structure most used in narrative/literary texts. Story grammars and maps.
rapid reading for which the reader obtains a gist or general idea
rapid reading where the reader already knows the word/phrase s/he is trying to locate. Eg. Using a telephone book, dictionary or index
informative text, typical of textbooks and nonfiction
texts that have been carefully sequenced in order based on known elements that determine ease of difficulty of reading such as picture support, length of sentences or words, vocabulary, concept load, prior knowledge needed, number of characters, symbolism, etc.
content area reading
reading that is usually found in textbooks in the separate disciplines such as social studies, science, math, health, etc. It is not literature.
a quality of good tests that insures that the test measures what it is supposed to measure
a negative attribute of some tests that result in some students doing better or worse than others because of reasons other than the purpose of the test.
a quality of good tests that assures that a test would produce almost the same results if given again (as long as no new learning or forgetting took place.).
a system of placing texts (books) in order of difficulty. Factors that contribute to text difficulty include number of words, length of words, length of sentences, predictability of story line or language such as repeated phrases, rhyming, difficulty of the vocabulary, prior knowledge needed, and whether there are illustrations.
Informal Reading Inventory
a type of reading test given one to one with students where they read aloud and answer comprehension questions. IRIs help teachers to place students in the right level of reading materials and to determine growth in literacy overtime. Students can be assessed for oral and silent reading and teachers can assess listening levels if they read the passages orally to the children and they then answer the questions.
a test in which the student's score is compared with a standard. MCAS and MTEL tests are _________ because you must reach the criterion score to pass. There is a minimum score to pass.
a test in which the student's score is compared with the scores of other students who took the test.________ tests produce raw sores, percentile scores and grade equivalent scores.
grade equivalent score
a score expressed as a grade and month. E.g. 2.5=second grade fifth month, interpreted as follows: The first grade student who got this score received the same number of items correct as the mean or average of ALL the students in fifth month of second grade who took the FIRST grade test.