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67 terms

Psych 201 Ch 14 & 15

STUDY
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Psychotherapy
involves an emotionally charged interaction between a trained therapist and a mental patient
Biomedical Therapy
uses drugs or other procedures that act on the patient's nervous system, treating his or her psychological disorders
Eclectic Approach
uses various forms of healing techniques depending on the client's unique pproblems
4 types of psychotherapies
Psychoanalytic, Humanistic, Behavioral, Cognitive
Aims of psychoanalytic theory
bring repressed feelings into conscious awareness where the patient can deal with them
Psychoanalysis
Usually involves free association-the patient speaks about whatever is on his/her mind
Resistance
During free association, the patient may change subjects to divert away from what they're really thinking
Interpersonal Psychotherapy
a veriation of psychodynamic therapy, is effective in treating depression. It focuses on symptom relief here and now, not an overall personality change, through an examination of current relationships and the mastery of relationship skills
Humanistic Therapies
aim to boost self-fulfillment by helping people grow in self-awareness and self-acceptance
Client-Centered therapy
developed by Carl Rogers; the therapist listens to the needs of the patient in an accepting and non-judgmental way
Active Listening
echoing, restatin, and seeking clarification of what the person expresses (like a mirror)
Behavior Therapy
applies learning principles to the elimination of unwanted behaviors
Counterconditioning
a procedure that conditions new responses to stimuli that trigger unwanted behaviors; based on classical conditioning and includes exposure therapy and aversive conditioning
Exposure Therapies
involves exposing people to fear-driving objects in real or virtual environments; things the patient would usually avoid
Systematic Desensitization
type of exposure therapy that associates a pleasant, relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli; commonly used to treat phobias
Aversive Conditioning
type of counterconditioning that associates an unpleasant state with an unwanted behavior
Operant Conditioning
type of classical conditioning; procedures enable therapists to use behavior modification, in which desired behaviors are rewarded and undesired behaviors are either unrewarded or punished
Token Economy
type of operant conditioning; in institutional settings, therapists may create a token economy in which patients exchange a token of some sort, earned for exhibiting the desired behavor, for various priviliges or treats
Cognitive Therapies
theaches people adaptive ways of thinking and acting based on the assumption that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactions; ie positive thinking/optimisim
Stress Inoculation Training
people learn to dispute their negative thoughts and to restructure their thinking in stressful situations
Cognitive Behavior Therapy
aims to alter the way people act and alter the way they think
Group therapy
normally consists of 6-9 people attending a 90 min session that can help more people and costs less; clients benefit from knowing others have similar problems
Reasons why clients my overestimate the effectiveness of psychotherapy
1. they often enter therapy in crisis, but the crisis may subside over the natural course of time 2. clients my need to believe the therapy was worth the effort 3. clients generaly speak kindly of their therapists
Outcome research
Randomized clinical trials help us best measure the effectiveness of psychotherapy; research shows that psychotherapy is cost and health effective
Eye Movement Desensitization and Preprocessing (EMDR)
the therapist attempts to unlock and reprocess previous frozen traumatic memories by waving a finger in front of the eyes of the client; has not held up under scientific testing; it's more a combo of exposure therapy and placebo effect
Light Exposure Therapy
Treats seasonal affective disorder (SAD); scientifically proven to be effective
Commonalities among psychotherapies
1. a hope for demoralized people 2. a new perspective 3. an empathetic, trusting, and caring relationship
4 types of therapists
Clinical psychologists (phD's), Clinical or psychiatric social worker, Counselors, and psychiatrists (can prescribe medication)
Psychopharmacology
Study of drug effects on mind and behavior; biomedical therapies
Double blind procedures
tests the effectiveness of a drug; actual medication vs placebo
Antipsychotic Drugs (classical and atypical)
Classical-Thorazine: remove positive symptoms associated with schizophrenia (ie hallucinations, agitation); Atypical-Clozaril: remove negative symptoms associated with schizophrenia (ie jumbled thoughts, apathy)
Antianxiety Drugs
Xanax; depress central nervous system and reduce anxiety and tension
Antidepressant Drugs
Prozac, zoloft, paxil; Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) improve the mood by elevating levels of serotonin by inhibiting reuptake
Mood-Stabilizing Medications
Lithium Carbonate; used to stabilize manic episodes in bipolar disorders
Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)
type of brain stimulation used for severely depressed patients; receive a shock that relieves depression
Psychosurgery
used as a last resort in alleviating psychological disturbances; it is irreversible; removal of brain tissue permanently alters the mind
Attribution Theory
We have a tendency to give casual explanations for someone's behavior, often by crediting either the situations or the person's disposition
Fundamental Attribution Error
the tendency to overestimate the impact of personal disposition and underestimate the impact of the situations in analyzing the behaviors of others leads to this
Attitudes
feelings, based on beliefs that predispose a person to respond in a particular way to objects, other people, and events
Attitudes can affect...
actions
Foot in the door Phenomenon
the tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request
Actions can affect...
attitudes
Cognitive dissonance
we often bring our attitudes into line with our actions to relieve tension (rationalize to reduce discomfort)
Conformity
adjusting one's behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard. Behavior is contatious, modeled by one followed by another. We must follow behavior of others to conform
Chameleon Effect
our natural tendencey to mimic others. Unconsciously mimicking others' expressions, postures, and voice tones helps us to empathize with others
Suggestibility
a subtle type of confority, adjusting our behavor or thinking toward some group standard
Normative Social Influence
influence resulting from a person's desire to gain apporval or avoid rejection. A person may respect normative behavior because there may be a severe price to pay if not respected
Informational Social Influence
influence resulting from one's willingness to accept others' opinions about reality
Social Facilitation
improved performance on tasks in the presence of others
Social Loafing
the tendency of an individual in a group to exert less effort towards attaining a common goal than when tested individually (ie tug of war)
Deindividuation
the loss of self-awareness and self-restraint in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity
Group Polarization
enhances a group's prevailing attitudes through a discussion. If a group is like-minded, discussion strengthens its prevailing opinions and attitudes
Group Think
a mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmonly ina decision-making group overrides the realistic appraisal of alternatives
Prejudice
an unjustifiable (usually negative) attitude toward a group and its members; often directed towards different cultural, ethnic, or gender groups
Scapegoat Theory
one minority group becomes the object of frustration
Cognitive roots of Prejudice
categorization, vivid cases, just-world phenomenon, hindsight bias
Aggression
any physical or verbal behavior intented to hurt or destroy. It may be done reactively out of hostility or proactively as a calculated means to an end
Biological influences on aggressive behavior
genetic, neural, biochemical
Psychological factors of aggressive behavior
dealing with aversive events, learning aggression is rewarding, observing models of aggression, and acquiring social scripts
Frustration-Aggression Principle
a principle in which frustration (caused by the blocking of an attempt to achieve a desired goal) creates anger, which can generate aggression
Social scripts
mental tapes for how to act, provided by our culture
Psychology of Attraction
proximity, physical attractiveness, and similarity
Passionate Love
an aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the beginnig of a love relationship
Companionate Love
a deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined
Equity
a condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give
Altruism
unselfish regard for the welfare of others
Bystander Effect
tendency of any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present