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Biology 1151: Lecture Exam 4 - Chapter 27 Dr. Ludden, College of Dupage

Biology 1151-college of dupage; Dr. J. Ludden; Lecture Exam 4-Chapter 27 Kim Kwas
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Spherical, Rod, Sprial:
Three most common shapes of prokaryotes.
Gram-positive bacteria:
The cell walls of ____ _____ _____ traps the crystal violet in the cytoplasm, during gram staining.
Prokaryotic / walls:
A key feature of nearly all ____ cells is the cell ____, which maintains cell shape, provides physical protection and prevents cell from bursting in a hypotonic environment.
Peptidoglycan:
_____ is a network of linked sugar polymers found in the cell walls of most bacteria
Gram-positive:
____ ____ bacteria has a two layer, simpler cell wall, with large amounts of peptidoglycan.
Gram-negative:
____ ____ bacteria has a three layer, more complex cell wall, with a thinner middle layer of peptidoglycan.
Capsule:
The cell wall of many prokaryotes is covered by a ____ which is a sticky layer of polysaccharide or protein.
Fimbriae:
Some prokaryotes stick to their substrate or to one another by means of hair-like protein appendages called ______.
Flagellum:
The most common structures that enable prokaryotes to move is _____, which may be scattered over the entire suface of cell or concentrated at one or both ends.
Taxis:
Many prokaryotes exhibit ____, which is movement toward or away from stimuli. Ex: prokaryotes may exhibit chemotaxis, a change in movement in response to chemicals.
Nucleoid:
Prokaryotes lack a membrane-bounded nucleus and their chromosome is located in the ____.
Binary fission:
Prokaryotes reproduce by ____ ____.
Prokaryotes:
_____ are highly successful in part because of their potential to reproduce quickly in a favorable environment.
Endospores:
Certain bacteria develop resistant cells called _____ when an essential nutrient is lacking.
Rapid / Mutation / Recombination:
_____ reproduction, ______ and genetic ____ promote genetic diversity in prokaryotes.
Genetic recombination:
____ _____ is the combining of DNA from two sources.
Transformation, transduction and conjugation:
While eukaryotes combine DNA from meiosis and fertilization, prokaryotes use the processes of ____ , ____ and ____ as the means of combining DNA.
Transformation:
In _____, the genotype of prokaryotic cells are altered by the uptake of foreight DNA from its surroundings.
Transduction:
In _____, bacteriophages carry bacterial genes from one host cell to another. ex: a virus can't reproduce so it attaches to another bacterium and injects the piece of bacterial DNA int
Conjugation:
_____ is the process where genetic material is transferred between two bacterial cells (of same or different species) that are temporarily joined.
Photoautotrophs:
____ are photosynthetic organisms that capture light energy and use it to drive the synthesis of organic compounds from CO2 or other inorganic carbon compounds.
Chemoautotrophs:
_____ oxidize inorganic substances for energy
Photoheterotrophs:
____ harness energy from light, but must obtain carbon in organic form; this mode is unique to salt-loving prokaryotes.
Chemoheterotrophs:
____ must consume organic molecules to obtain both energy and carbon; Fungi, animals and most protists fall in this category.
Aerobes:
Obligate ____ use O2 for cellular respiration and can't grow without it.
Anaerobes / anaerobic:
Obligate ____ are poisoned by O2; some live by fermentation and others extract chemical energy by _____ respiration.
Facultative anaerobes:
____ ____ use O2 if present, but can also carry out anaerobic respiration or fermentation.
Nitrogen:
____ is essential for the production of amino acids and nucleic acids in all organisms.
Nirogen fixation:
Some cyanobacteria and methanogens convert atmospheric nitrogen to ammonia in a process called ____ ____.
Heterocytes:
Some prokaryotes need to cooperate w/each other to use environmental resources. ____ are specialized cells that only carry out nitrogen fixation and transfer it to other cells.
Biofilms:
Metabolic cooperation between different prokaryotic species often occurs in surface-coating colonies known as ____.
Carl Woese:
____ _____ is the person who concluded that many prokaryotes once classified as bacteria are actually more closely related to eukaryotes and belong in their own domain; Archaea.
Extremophiles:
____ live in environments so extreme that few other organisms can survive.
Halophiles:
Extreme _____ live in highly saline environments, such as the Great Salt Lake.
Thermophiles:
Extreme _____ thrive in very hot environments.
Methanogens:
____ are a group of archaea that use CO2 to oxidize H2, releasing methane as a waster product; this group are anaerobes, that are poisoned by O2.
Proteobacteria:
____ is a large clade of gram-negative bacteria that includes photoautotrophs, chemoautotrophs and heterotrophs.
Decomposers:
____ break down corpses, dead vegetation and waste products, unlocking supplies of carbon, nitrogen and other elements.
Symbiosis:
____ describes an ecological relationship in which two species live in close contact with one another.
Mutualism:
____ is an ecological interaction between two species in which both benefit.
Commensalism:
____ is an ecological relationship in which one species benefits while the other is neither helped or harmed in any significant way.
Parasitism:
____ is an ecological relationship in which a parasite eats the cell contents, tissues, or body fluids of its host.
Pathogens:
Parasites that cause disease are known as ____, many of which are prokaryotic.
Pathogenic prokaryotes:
All ____ ____ are bacteria, which usually cause illness by producing poisons, classified as exotoxins and endotoxins.
Exotoxins:
____ are proteins secreted by certain bacteria and other organisms.
Endotoxins:
____ are lipopolysaccharide components of the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria, and are released only when bacteria die and their cell walls break down.
Bioremediation:
____ is the use of organisms to remove pollutants from soil, air or water.