Holt United States History, George, chapter 1

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Terms in this set (...)

Middle Passage
the voyage across the Atlantic Ocean that enslaved Africans were forced to endure
African Diaspora
the scattering of African slaves between the 1520s and 1860s
Bering land bridge
Former ice age link between Siberia and Alaska.
migration
Form of relocation diffusion involving permanent move to a new location.
hunter-gatherers
People who hunt animals and gather wild plants, seeds, fruits, and nuts to survive
pueblos
Above ground houses made of a heavy clay called adobe.
environment
climates and landscapes that surround living things
What early civilizations existed in Mesoamerica and south america?
Olmec, Maya, Aztec, Inca
Olmec
started in 1200 BC, the earliest known civilization in mesoamerica. Known for use of stone. Ended around 400 BC.
Maya
grew maize, built large cities, In the 900s began to collapse, we don't know why.
Aztec
fierce warriors, huge trade network (in central america)
Inca
began as a small tribe, grew large on pacific coast (south america), strong government with a king, known for building and art
kivas
Underground ceremonial chambers
Native american Agriculture
grew maize. Also grew beans and squash. began to use irrigation.
Mississippian mound builders
skilled farmers and traders, built mounds for religious ceremonies, flat tops with temples,
totems
Ancestor or animal spirits
teepees
Cone-shaped shelters
culture
Beliefs, customs, and traditions of a specific group of people.
matrilineal
Based on or tracing the family through the mother.
Iroquois league
A group of Iroquois tribes that worked together for peace
Native american religion
linked to nature, believed that spiritual forces were everywhere, even plants and animals.
Native american beliefs regarding land rights
believed that the land belonged to everyone and the only thing an individual could own was where you grew crops.
Berbers
a group of people from northern Africa.
Ghana Kingdom/Trade
first civilization were farmers....Ghana had gold and would trade it for salt....By 800 was in control of West Africa's trade.
Mali Kingdom
Controlled trade on the Niger river
Mansa Musa
Mali's most famous ruler...ruled for 25 years, added many important trade cities like Timbuktu, Djenne, and Gao to its empire.
West African Slave Trade
at first only black Africians, then Europeans started....Slaves would also be traded for goods.
Crusades
a long series of wars.....failed, but changed Europe...started trading with Asia.
Renaissance
brought new ways of thinking....means rebirth....fewer invasions brought stability to Europe.
mosques
A Muslim house of worship
democracy
A political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them
Black Death
A deadly plague that swept through Europe
Leif Eriksson
Norse explorer of America
Henry the Navigator
Portuguese prince who promoted the study of navigation and directed voyages of exploration down the western coast of Africa
What allowed Paleo-Indians to begin the first migration to the Americas?
Climate changes
Were there societies in North America before Europeans arrived?
Yes, several early societies developed in North America long before Europeans explored the continent.
What did Native American cultures share?
Native American cultures shared beliefs about religion and land ownership.
Mayan
1500 B.C. to 900 A.D. This is the most advanced civilization of the time in the Western Hempishere. Famous for its awe-inspiring temples, pyramids and cities. A complex social and political order.
Black plague
The Black Death was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated 75 to 200 million people and peaking in Europe in the years 1346-53.
Mayan
1500 B.C. to 900 A.D. This is the most advanced civilization of the time in the Western Hempishere. Famous for its awe-inspiring temples, pyramids and cities. A complex social and political order.
aztec
(1200-1521) 1300, they settled in the valley of Mexico. Grew corn. Engaged in frequent warfare to conquer others of the region. Worshipped many gods (polytheistic). Believed the sun god needed human blood to continue his journeys across the sky. Practiced human sacrifices and those sacrificed were captured warriors from other tribes and those who volunteered for the honor.
iroquois
A later native group to the eastern woodlands. They blended agriculture and hunting living in common villages constructed from the trees and bark of the forests
Crusaders
Christian warriors sent to regain the Holy Land (Jerusalem) from the Muslims that controlled
why did the crusades help make the economy better in Europe?
The Muslims had taken over the Holy Land and were trying to force their religion on Europe
convert
To change money, stocks, or units in which a quantity is expressed into others of a different kind.