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1) Forming, 2) Storming, 3) Norming, 4) Performing, 5) Adjourning (Fano Sand Nibles Pretty Ass). Imperfect but useful schema to show stages development of a group.

1) Forming

Orientation, Hesitant Participation, Search for Meaning, Dependency. --- Call before first meeting as a reminder. Make it easy to get to group (signs). The first meeting: reduce anxiety, establish early ground rules (honesty, confidentiality).

Two Tasks of the Initial Stage

1. Member must understand how to achieve primary task for which they came. 2. They must attend to social relationships in the group to attain their niche (comfort and gratification).

2) Storming "Top or Bottom"

Conflict, Dominance, Rebellion. "Top or Bottom". Away from acceptance, etc. to conflict between members and leader. Each member attempts to establish his or her preferred amount of initiative and power. Control hierarchy emerges. Expectations of therapist must get disappointed as there are too many and no therapist can meet them all. Tough on therapist.

Failure of therapist

Therapist can fail by being too authoritarian OR too frail in confronting issues.

3) Norming "Near or Far"

After period of conflict group develops into more cohesive unit. World of group is one of balance, resonance, safety, increased morale, trust, and self-disclosure. Chief concern of group is with intimacy and closeness.

4) Performing

Working phase of the group in which ideally all group members "work" as a group and for themselves and for one another.

5) Termination

Final phase of group in which group members anticipate the end of group, investment in the group declines, and group members prepare to leave the group. Dealing with loss. Making change transferable to real life. Aftercare plans.

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