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APUSH Unit 1 and 2 REVIEW
Terms in this set (70)
southern colony b/c Virginia and made $ from tobacco
Treaty of Tordesillas
Set the Line of Demarcation which was a boundary established in 1493 to define Spanish and Portuguese possessions in the Americas., *Set the Line of Demarcation which was a boundary established in 1493 to define Spanish and Portuguese possessions in the Americas
First British American colony (1607), First permanent English settlement in North America
-come b/c gold profit, money, exploration, want to find western passage to east- (COME TO MAKE $$) John Smith first person to save Jamestown ; Lord Delware saved 2nd time (military tactics/ women) John Wolfe introduced TOBACCO- made colony profitable
laws that controlled the lives of enslaved african americans and denied them basic rights
Maryland Act of Religious Toleration
Written by Baltimore in 1649, this act was the first law that confirmed liberty of religion. Although it did allow freedom of worship, the act did not separate church and state matters
Oglethorpe / Debtors colony / philanthropy
English general, colonial administrator, and philanthropist, who founded the colony of Georgia (1732) as a refuge for persecuted European Protestants and unemployed English debtors. ; Est. G.A. colony as a refuge for debtors, criminals, etc. from England "COLONY desired for debtors, new opportunity, 2nd chance free from prison: BUFFER COLONY: protect SC from SPANISH Fluoridaion/N.A
NOO CATHOLICS, b/c spanish were Catholics
a voyage that brought enslaved Africans across the Atlantic Ocean to North America and the West Indies, *The middle portion of the triangular trade that brought African slaves to the Americas
poor colonists who received free passage to North America in exchange for working without pay for a certain number of years ;immigrants (Head-right system) rich gave poor opportunity to come to america LARGEST GRP IN CHESAPEAKE COLONY
House of Burgesses
the first elected legislative assembly in the New World established in the Colony of Virginia in 1619, representative colony set up by England to make laws and levy taxes but England could veto its legislative acts.-"1st institution of democracy"
A religious group who wanted to purify the Church of England. They came to America for religious freedom and settled Massachusetts Bay.
When more than 15,000 Puritans journeyed to Massachusetts to escape religious persecution and economic hard times
Puritan dissenter banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony who fled to Rhode Island in 1638, challenged New England Calvinist ministers' authority, as they taught the good works for salvation of Catholicism (religious freedom) "don't have to follow law" she taught she could talk to God, almost got her killed
He founded Rhode Island for separation of Church and State. He believed that the Puritans were too powerful and was ordered to leave the Massachusetts Bay Colony for his religious beliefs.,* He was banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony for challenging Puritan ideas. He later established Rhode Island and helped it to foster religious toleration.OPPOSING PURITANISM
Half Way Covenant
A Puritan church document; In 1662, the Halfway Covenant allowed partial membership rights to persons not yet converted into the Puritan church; It lessened the difference between the "elect" members of the church from the regular members; Women soon made up a larger portion of Puritan congregations.
King Phillips War
War between the Native American tribes of New England and British colonists that took place from 1675-1676. The war was the result of tension caused by encroaching white settlers. The chief of the Wampanoags, King Philip lead the natives. The war ended Indian resistance in New England and left a hatred of whites. NEW ENGLAND INDIAN WARS
against Gov. Berkley. Bacon Rebbelion fail ;Signifies class tensions b/w rich and poor tide water elites and back country settlers
, 1676 - Nathaniel Bacon and other western Virginia settlers were angry at Virginia Gov. Berkley for trying to appease the Doeg Indians after the Doegs attacked the western settlements. The frontiersmen formed an army, with Bacon as its leader, which defeated the Indians and then marched on Jamestown and burned the city. The rebellion ended suddenly when Bacon died of an illness.
Parcels of land consisting of about 50 acres which were given to colonists who brought indentured servants into America. They were used by the Virginia Company to attract more colonists."come to america work for me I will give you land"
Old Deluder Laws
communities had to pay teachers to teach based on how many people there were in the community - 1 teacher for 50 families and 1school for 100 families.
New England Confederation
1643 - Formed to provide for the defense of the four New England colonies, and also acted as a court in disputes between colonies., Military alliance between the New England colonies. Created because of frequent attacks by Indians, the Dutch, and the French, and because England was in the throes of a civil war and wasn't going to send aid. Lasted until 1684. ""designed for military techniques, blah blah"
Dominion of New England
1686 - The British government combined the colonies of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, and Connecticut into a single province headed by a royal governor (Andros). The Dominion ended in 1692, when the colonists revolted and drove out Governor Andros.
Laws that governed trade between England and its colonies. Colonists were required to ship certain products exclusively to England. These acts made colonists very angry because they were forbidden from trading with other countries., **1650 laws that required among other things that all goods to and from the colonies be transported on British ships
Hudson River Valley School of landscape artist
an economic system (Europe in 18th C) to increase a nation's wealth by government regulation of all of the nation's commercial interests**, An economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought "colonies benefit from mother country." what goods to grow, being controlled by mother country COLONIES being REGULATED by the mother country
A three way system of trade during 1600-1800s Aferica sent slaves to America, America sent Raw Materials to Europe, and Europe sent Guns and Rum to Africa,** a trade route that exchanged goods between the West Indies, the American colonies, and West Africa.
Religious revival in the American colonies of the eighteenth century during which a number of new Protestant churches were established., first mass movement which broke down sectional boundaires, **
(1703-1758) American theologian whose sermons began the Great Awakening, famous preacher during the Great Awakening who preached harsh sermons and turned many Puritans back to God **Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God
One of the preachers of the great awakening (key figure of "New Light"); known for his talented voice inflection and ability to bring many a person to their knees., popular minister of the Great Awakening, who drew crowds of thousands
French and Indian War
Was a war fought by French and English on American soil over control of the Ohio River Valley-- English defeated French in1763. Historical Significance: established England as number one world power and began to gradually change attitudes of the colonists toward England for the worse. over territorial claims in North America
Last of the Mohicans
A meeting in Albany, New York, in 1754, in which the British colonies attempted to make an alliance with the Iroquois tribe in order to end their differences. The Iroquois, however, rejected the offer., A meeting of leaders of several colonies that was meant to achieve colonial unity and create a defense against France **It advocated a union of the British colonies for their security and defense against French Held by the British Board of Trade to help cement the loyalty of the Iroquois League
Plan of Union
This was the agreement between the Presbyterians and Congregationalists to form a united church, as their doctrine was essentially the same. Therefore, New England became Presbyerianized and a hotbed for the Second Great Awakening, plan put forward in 1754 calling for an intercolonial union to manage defense and Indian affairs. The plan was rejected by the participants at the Albany Congress
a group of First Nations/Native Americans that originally consisted of five nations: the Mohawk, the Oneida, the Onondaga, the Cayuga, and the Seneca.
Battle of Quebec
1759 - James Wolfe lead and army to meet French troops near the Plains of Abraham. Both he and the French commander, Marquis de Montcalm, died. The French were ultimately defeated and the city of Quebec surrendered. It was considered to be one of the most significant engagements in British and American history, and when Montreal fell in 1760, that was the last time French flags would fly on American soil., **A battle won by the British over the French, and the turning point in the French and Indian War.
After the French and Indian War, colonists began moving westward and settling on Indian land. This migration led to Pontiac's Rebellion in 1763, when a large number of Indian tribes banded together under the Ottawa chief Pontiac to keep the colonists from taking over their land. Pontiac's Rebellion led to Britain's Proclamation of 1763, which stated that colonists could not settle west of the Appalachian Mountains.
Proclamation of 1763
A proclamation from the British government which forbade British colonists from settling west of the Appalacian Mountains, and which required any settlers already living west of the mountains to move back east.,*** law forbidding english colonists to settle west of the appalachian mountains By england
Stamp Act of Congress
- law that placed a tax on newspapers, legal documents, and most other printed materials. An official government stamp had to appear on these materials to show the tax had been paid. It was later repealed.***, The Stamp Act Congress was a meeting on October 19, 1765 in New York City of representatives from among the Thirteen Colonies. They discussed and acted upon the Stamp Act recently passed by the governing Parliament of Great Britain overseas, which did not include any representatives from the colonies. Meeting in the building that would become Federal Hall, the Congress consisted of delegates from 9 of the 13 colonies.
It was a movement during the 1760's by western North Carolinians, mainly Scots-Irish, that resented the way that the Eastern part of the state dominated political affairs. They believed that the tax money was being unevenly distributed. Many of its members joined the American Revolutionists.,** (1768-1771) Eventually violent uprising of backcountry settlers in North Carolina against unfair taxation and the control of colonial affairs by the seaboard elite.
They were a group of Scots-Irish men living in the Appalachian hills that wanted protection from Indian attacks. They made an armed march on Philadelphia in 1764. They protested the lenient way that the Quakers treated the Indians. Their ideas started the Regulator Movement in North Carolina.** A mob of Pennsylvania frontiersmen led by the Paxtons who massacred a group of non-hostile Indians.
Enumerated Products list
British soldiers fired into a crowd of colonists who were teasing and taunting them. Five colonists were killed. The colonists blamed the British and the Sons of Liberty and used this incident as an excuse to promote the Revolution.***riot in Boston (March 5, 1770) arising from the resentment of Boston colonists toward British troops quartered in the city, in which the troops fired on the mob and killed several persons
Boston Tea Party
demonstration (1773) by citizens of Boston who (disguised as Indians) raided three British ships in Boston harbor and dumped hundreds of chests of tea into the harbor, a raid on three British ships in Boston Harbor (December 16, 1773) in which Boston colonists, ***disguised as Indians, threw the contents of several hundred chests of tea into the harbor as a protest against British taxes on tea and against the monopoly granted the East India Company.
in new england colonies, act of democracy , meeting in colonial New England where settlers discussed and voted on issues** gathering of all eligible voters to debate issues and pass laws
in response to Boston Tea Party, 4 acts passed in 1774, Port of Boston closed, reduced power of assemblies in colonies, **permitted royal officers to be tried elsewhere, provided for quartering of troop's in barns and empty houses, a series of laws enacted by Parliament in 1774 to punish Massachusetts colonists for the Boston Tea Party.
Committees of Correspondence
Organization founded by Samuel Adams consisting of a system of communication between patriot leaders in New England and throughout the colonies***Samuel Adams started the first committee in Boston in 1772 to spread propaganda and secret information by way of letters. They were used to sustain opposition to British policy. The committees were extremely effective and a few years later almost every colony had one. This is another example of the colonies breaking away from Europe to become Americans.
Agreements not to import goods from Great Britain. They were designed to put pressure on the British economy and force the repeal of unpopular parliamentary acts., A form of protest against British policies; colonial merchants refused to import British goods.** widespread boycott against British goods;
First Continental Congress
Delegates from all colonies except georgia met to discuss problems with britain and to promote independence, The assembly of colonial delegates from every colony except Georgia that met in 1774 in Philadelphia to oppose the Intolerable Acts.
British governmental theory that Parliament spoke for all British subjects, including Americans, even if they did not vote for its members, ***British governmental theory that Parliament spoke for all British subjects, including Americans, even if they did not vote for its members
A military organization formed by Benjamin Franklin which formed fighting units in Pennsylvania and erected two batteries on the Delaware River.*** document produced by the Continental Congress in 1775 that called for a complete boycott of British goods. This included non-importation, non-exportation and non-consumption. It was the closest approach to a written constitution yet from the colonies. It was hoped to bring back the days before Parliamentary taxation. Those who violated The Association in America were tarred and feathered
Olive Branch Petition
peace petiton sent to king George by colonial delegates after the battles of lexington and concord,*** Letter sent by the Second Continental Congress to King George III in 1775 in an attempt to avoid war.was written to try and get George III to consider peace one more time
Battle of Lexington and Concorde
general Gage dispatched troops from Boston to seize rebel supplies, there wasnt a plan to fight but there was accidental fire shot,*** Brits heard that colonists were stockin piling weapons in Concorde so they sent 700 Brit troops to Concorde-Paul Revere-troops ran into the minutemen and were ambushed all the way back to Boston
Battle of Bunker Hill
First major battle of the Revolutions. It showed that the Americans could hold their own, but the British were also not easy to defeat. Ultimately, the Americans were forced to withdraw after running out of ammunition, and Bunker Hill was in British hands. However, the British suffered more deaths.***British general Gage led two unsuccessful attempts to take this hill,
Thomas Pain *
, a pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that claimed the colonies had a right to be an independent nation
*criticized monarchies and convinced many American colonists of the need to break away from Britain
Battle of Trenton
On Christmas day at night, Washington's soldiers began crossing the Deleware River. The next morning, they suprise attacked the British mercenaries which were Hessians.**, December 25th. Washington crosses Deleware River and takes advantage of he Hessains. Becuase they were celebrating Christmas. He takes the Hessains by suprise and its a victory for the Continental Army.
Battle of Saratoga
Turning point of the American Revolution. It was very important because it convinced the French to give the U.S. military support. It lifted American spirits, ended the British threat in New England by taking control of the Hudson River, and, most importantly, showed the French that the Americans had the potential to beat their enemy, Great Britain.,**
the decisive American victory in 1777 that was a major turning point in the revolution, prompting France and Spain to enter the war against Britain
**after the colonists won this major victory, the French decided to support the colonies with money, troops, ships, etc
Valley of Forge
site of the military camp of the American Continental Army over the winter of 1777-1778 during the American Revolutionary War.**area outside philiy that washington and the contiental army spent the harsh winter of 1777-1778
Wife of John Adams. During the Revolutionary War, she wrote letters to her husband describing life on the homefront. She urged her husband to remember America's women in the new government he was helping to create.**appealed to her husband to protect the rights of women
Battle of Yorktown
Last major battle of the Revolutionary War. Cornwallis and his troops were trapped in the Chesapeake Bay by the French fleet. He was sandwiched between the French navy and the American army. He surrendered October 19, 1781.***the last major battle of the war, in which american and french troops bombarded yorktown and forced cornwallis to surrender his arm
Treaty of Paris 1783
The British recognized the independence of the United States. It granted boundaries, which stretched from the Mississippi on the west, to the Great Lakes on the north, and to Spanish Florida on the south. The Yankees retained a share of Newfoundland. It greatly upset the Canadians.***This treaty ended the Revolutionary War, recognized the independence of the American colonies, and granted the colonies the territory from the southern border of Canada to the northern border of Florida, and from the Atlantic coast to the Mississippi River
The officers of the Continental Army had long gone without pay, and they met in Newburgh, New York to address Congress about their pay. Unfortunately, the American government had little money after the Revolutionary War. They also considered staging a coup and seizing control of the new government, but the plotting ceased when George Washington refused to support the plan.*** plot hatched in 1783 by officers in the Continental Army to oust Congress in a coup and set up a military dictatorship
Articles of Confederation
a written agreement ratified in 1781 by the thirteen original states**the nations first constitution, was adopted by the second continental congress in 1781during the revolution. the document was limited because states held most of the power, and congress lacked the power to tax, regulate trade, or control coinage
Land of Ordinance 1785
A law that divided much of the United States into a system of townships to facilitate the sale of land to settlers, ***a law that established a plan for surveying and selling the federally owned lands west of the Appalachian Mountains
The 1787 Northwest Ordinance defined the process by which new states could be admitted into the Union from the Northwest Territory. He ordinance forbade slavery in the territory but allowed citizens to vote on the legality of slavery once statehood had been established. The Northwest Ordinance was the most lasting measure of the national government under the Articles of Confederation
this conflict in Massachusetts caused many to criticize the Articles of Confederation and admit the weak central government was not working; uprising led by Daniel Shays in an effort to prevent courts from foreclosing on the farms of those who could not pay the taxes**Daniel Shays it was a protest against the land being taken away and the taxes that they had just worked so hard to get rid of
small states afraid -equal number in senate and number of representatives in houses based on population,*** Created two branches of government lower house was population based representation, the upper house was equally represented.
Agreement providing that enslaved persons would count as three-fifths of other persons in determining representation in Congress **the agreement to count slaves as a fraction of a person when counting populatio
Slave Trade compromise
In 1787 some northern states had banned slave trade in their borders, urged that slave trade should be banned in the entire nation, southerners-no, Compromised that congress could not outlaw slave trade for at least 20 years. Northerners agreed that no state could stop a fugitive slave from being returned to someone who claimed that slave**
Congress could not regulate or outlaw slavery or slave trade until 1808,
** stated that laws could be made in 20 years that could bar the importation of enslaved people
Led Federalists, summoned 2nd Congress, wanted super-powerful central government
Federalist Paper 10
The Federalist Paper warning against faction such as interest groups and political parties.
Econ. Interpretation of the constitution , A historian who argued that the Founders were largely motivated by the economic advantage of their class in writing the Constitution, **
A leader of the "Progressive School" of historiography, he attacked the Founders as being motivated by economic self-interest. Although initially supporting New Deal policies, he did not agree with Roosevelt's foreign policy and felt that the U.S. should be more isolationist.
***A historian who argued that the Founders were largely motivated by the economic advantage of their class in writing the Constitution.
The colonists often refused to buy British goods if they were required to pay taxes on them. This is the term for a refusal to purchase such goods.
. Which town was a starting point on the Oregon Trail in 1842?
three problems that necessitated American military involvement
British military strategy was generally poor in 1777.
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