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Civics Unit 2 Vocab Part 1
Terms in this set (24)
citizens elect representatives to govern in their place; began in ancient Rome
A written grant of authority.
Rule of Law
government is based on clear and fairly enforced laws and no one is above the law.
powers exercised by the government are restricted, usually by a written constitution; the government is NOT all powerful
The rights and liberties claimed by individuals by virtue of being human; also called natural rights or human rights.
Rights that all people have just by being human and the government cannot take these away; life, liberty and the ownership of property.
Separation of Powers
The idea that the powers of a government should be split between three or more strongly independent branches to prevent any one person or group from gaining too much power.
The principle that the people are the ultimate source of the authority and legitimacy of a government. The people rule.
A written agreement between two or more parties or nations to perform some action.
A person's basic individual rights to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness; Thomas Jefferson's interpretation of John Locke's natural rights.
The idea that decisions approved by more than half of the people in a group or society will be accepted and observed by all of the people.
an agreement among the people and their ruler that defines and limits the rights and duties of each. People agree to give up some of their freedom to gain protection from government.
state of nature
the natural state at a time before governments were formed where people can do as they please, without laws or restraints.
form of government where all citizens vote. Began in Ancient Greece (Athens) All citizens vote on all issues. .
consent of the governed
the authority of a government should depend on the consent of the people; for example, as expressed by votes in elections
first attempt at self-government in the American colonies; based on fair and equal laws and majority rule; written by the Pilgrims aboard the Mayflower=
Virginia House of Burgesses
first elected representative government in the American colonies
Enlightenment philosopher who said that natural rights were based on life, liberty and property; said that consent of the governed allowed people to overthrow the government if natural rights were not protected.
a European intellectual movement of the late 17th and 18th centuries emphasizing reason and individualism rather than tradition
agreement between the King of England and nobles that represents the first attempt to limit the power of the king and enforce the rule of law. Magna Carta means Great Charter in Latin.
English Bill of Rights
written by the English Parliament in 1689; guaranteed that individual rights like trial by jury and right to petition are protected; limits power of government
pamphlet written by Thomas Paine in 1776 urging the colonies to declare their independence from English rule
Declaration of Independence
written by Thomas Jefferson and signed on July 4, 1776 - document declared that the colonies would now be "free and independent states" and were no longer under the authority of King George III and English authority.
form of government where citizens elect representatives to make and enforce laws (aka representative democracy)
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