Psychology 10th Edition-someone else's set
Terms in this set (181)
The interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory, and language).
The science of behavior and mental processes.
The longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors arising from the interaction of nature and nurture.
The principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations.
Levels of Analysis
The differing complementary views from biological to psychological to social-cultural, for analyzing any given phenomenon.
An integrated approach that incorporates biological, psychological, and social cultural levels of analysis.
Pure Science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base.
Scientific study that aims to solve practical problems.
A branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living (often related to school, work, or marriage) and in achieving greater well-being.
A branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders.
A branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practiced by physicians who sometimes provide medical (for example, drug) treatments as well as psychological therapy.
The scientific study of human functioning, with the goals of discovering and promoting strengths and virtues that help individuals and communities to thrive.
A branch of psychology that studies how people interact with their social environments and how social institutions affect individuals and groups.
The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it.
Thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions.
The enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values, and traditional shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generations to the next.
An ethical principle that research principle that research participants be told enough to enable them to choose whether they wish to participate.
The post experimental explanation of a study, including its purpose and any deceptions, to its participants.
An explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events.
A testable prediction, often implied by a theory.
A statement of the procedures (operations) used to define research variables. For example human intelligence may be operationally defined as "what an intelligence test measures".
Repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances.
An observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles.
Observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation.
A technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of a particular group, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of the group.
All the cases in a group being studied, from which sample may be drawn.
A sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion.
A measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other.
A statistical index of the relationship between two things.
A graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables.
In an experiment, the group that is exposed to the treatment, to one version of the independent variable.
In an experiment, the group that is not exposed to the treatment. Serves as comparison.
Experimental result caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition. The recipient assumes is an active agent.
The experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied.
A factor other than the independent variable that might produce an effect in an experiment.
The outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable.
The most frequently occurring score(s) in a distributions.
The arithmetic average of a distribution, obtaining by adding the scores and then dividing by the number of scores.
The middle score in a distribution; half the scores are above it and half are below it.
The difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution.
A computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score.
A symmetrical, bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many types of data; most scores fall near the mean and fewer and fewer near the extremes.
A statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtaining result occurred by chance.
Concerned with the links between biology and behavior. Includes psychologists working in neuroscience, behavior, genetics, and evolutionary psychology.
A nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system.
A neuron's bushy, branching extensions that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body.
The neuron extension that passes messages through its branches to other neurons or to muscles or glands.
A fatty tissue layer segmentally encasing the axons of some neurons; enables vastly greater transmission speed as neural impulses hop from one node to the next.
A neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon.
The level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse.
The junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron. The tiny gap at this junction is called the synaptic gap or synaptic cleft.
Chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gaps between neurons. When released by the sending neurons.
A neurotransmitter's reabsorption by the sending neuron.
Natural, opiate-like neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure.
The body's speedy electrochemical communication network, consisting of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous systems.
Central Nervous System
The brain and spinal cord
Peripheral Nervous System
The sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body.
Bundling axons that form neural "cables" connecting the central nervous system with muscles, glands, and sense organs.
Neurons that carry incoming information from the sensory receptors to the brain and spinal cord.
Neurons that carry outgoing information from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles and glands.
Neurons within the brain and spinal cord that communicate internally and intervene between the sensory inputs and motor outputs.
Somatic Nervous System
The division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body's skeletal muscles.
Autonomic Nervous System
The part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs. Its sympathetic division arouses; its parasympathetic division calms.
Sympathetic Nervous System
The division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations.
Parasympathetic Nervous System
The division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving its energy.
A simple, autonomic response to a sensory stimulus, such as the knee jerk response.
The body's slow chemical communication system; a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream.
Chemical messengers that are manufactured by the endocrine glands, travel through the bloodstream, and affect other tissues.
A pair of endocrine glands that sit just above the kidneys and secrete hormones that help arouse the body in times of stress.
The endocrine system's most influential gland. Under the influence of the hypothalamus, the pituitary regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands.
Tissue destruction. A brain lesion is a naturally or experimentally caused destruction of brain tissue.
An amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the brain's surface. These waves are measured by electrodes placed on the scalp.
A visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task.
A technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images of soft tissue. MRI scans show brain anatomy.
A technique for revealing blood flow and, therefore, brain activity by comparing successive MRI scans. fMRI scans show brain function.
The oldest part and central core of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull; the brainstem is responsible for automatic survival functions.
The base of the brainstem; controls heartbeat and breathing.
The brain's sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem; it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla.
A nerve network that travels through the brainstem and plays an important role in controlling arousal.
The "little brain" at the rear of the brainstem; functions including processing sensory input and coordinating movement output and balance.
Neural system located below the cerebral hemispheres; associated with emotions and drives.
Two limabean-sized neural clusters in the limbic system; linked to emotion.
A neural structure lying below the thalamus; it directs several maintenance activities helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland, and is linked to emotion and reward.
The intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells covering the cerebral hermispheres; the body's ultimate control and information-processing center.
Portion of the cerebral cortex lying just behind the forehead; involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgements.
The portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the top of the head and toward the rear; receives sensory input for touch and body position.
The portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the back of the head; includes the visual areas, which receive visual information from the opposite visual field.
Portion of the cerebral cortex lying roughly above the ears; includes the auditory areas, each receiving information primarily from the opposite ear.
An area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements.
The area at the front of the parietal lobes that registers and processes body touch and movement sensations.
Areas of the cerebral cortex that are not involved in primary motor or sensory functions; rather, they are involved in higher mental functions such as learning, remembering, thinking, and speaking.
The brain's ability to change, especially during childhood, by reorganizing after damage or by building new pathways based on experience.
The formation of new neurons.
The large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them.
A condition in which the two hemispheres of the brain are isolated by cutting the connecting fibers (mainly those of the corpus callosum) between them.
Our awareness of ourselves and our environment.
The interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory, and language).
The principle that information is often simultaneously processed on separate conscious and unconscious tracks.
A condition in which a person can respond to a visual stimulus without consciously experiencing it.
The focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus.
Failing to see visible objects when our attention is directed elsewhere.
Failing to notice changes in the environment.
The biological clock; regular bodily rhythms that occur on a 24-hour cycle.
Rapid eye movement sleep, a recurring sleep stage during which vivid dreams commonly occur. also known as paradoxical sleep, because the muscles are relaxed (except for minor twitches) but other body systems are active.
The relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed, awake state.
Periodic, natural, reversible loss of consciousness - as distinct from unconsciousness resulting from a coma, general anesthesia, or hibernation.
False sensory experiences, such as seeing something in the absence of an external visual stimulus.
The large, slow brain waves associated with deep sleep.
Recurring problems in falling or staying asleep.
A sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks. The sufferer may lapse directly into REM sleep, often at inopportune times.
A sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and repeated momentary awakenings.
A sleep disorder characterized by high arousal and an appearance of being terrified; unlike nightmares, night terrors occur during stage 4 sleep, within two or three hours of falling asleep, and are seldom remembered.
A sequence of images, emotions, and thoughts passing through a sleeping person's mind. Dreams are notable for their hallucinatory imagery, discontinuities, and incongruities, and for the dreamer's delusional acceptance of the content and later difficulties remembering it.
According to Freud, the remembered story line of a dream.
According to freud, the underlying meaning of a dream.
The tendency for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivation (created by repeated awakenings during REM sleep).
A social interaction in which one person suggests to another that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur.
A suggestion, made during a hypnosis session, to be carried out after the subject is no longer hypnotized; used by some clinicians to help control undesired symptoms and behaviors.
A split in consciousness, which allows some thoughts and behaviors to occur simultaneously with others.
A chemical substance that alters perceptions and mood.
The diminishing effect with regular use of the same dose of a drug, requiring the user to take larger and larger doses before experiencing the drug's effect.
Compulsive drug craving and use, despite adverse consequences.
The discomfort and distress that follow discontinuing the use of an addictive drug.
A physiological need for a drug, marked by unpleasant withdrawal symptoms when the drug is discontinued.
A psychological need to use a drug, such as to relieve negative emotions.
Drugs (such as alcohol, barbiturates, and opiates) that reduce neural activity and slow body functions.
Alcohol use marked by tolerance, withdrawal if suspended, and a drive to continue use.
Drugs that depress the activity of the central nervous system, reducing anxiety but impairing memory and judgment.
Opium and its derivatives, such as morphine and heroin; they depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety.
Drugs (such as caffeine, nicotine, and the more powerful amphetamines and cocaine) that excite neural activity and speed up body functions.
Drugs that stimulate neural activity, causing sped-up body functions and associated energy and mood changes.
A stimulating and highly addictive psychoactive drug in tobacco.
A powerfully addictive drug that stimulates the central nervous system, with speeded-up body functions and associated energy and mood changes; over time, appears to reduce baseline dopamine levels.
A synthetic stimulant and mild hallucinogen. Produces euphoria and social intimacy, but with short-term health risks and longer-term harm to serotonin-producing neurons and to mood and cognition.
Psychedelic ("mind-manifesting") drugs, such as LSD, that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input.
A powerful hallucinogenic drug; also known as acid.
An altered state of consciousness reported after a close brush with death (such as through cardiac arrest); often similar to drug-induced hallucinations.
The major active ingredient in marijuana; triggers a variety of effects, including mild hallucinations.
The process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energies from our environment.
The process of organizing and interpreting sensory information, enabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events.
Analysis that begins with the sensory receptors and works up to the brain's integration of sensory information.
Information processing guided by higher-level mental processes, as when we construct perceptions drawing on our experience and expectations.
Conversion of one form of energy into another. In sensation, the transforming of stimulus energies, such as sights, sounds, and smells, into neural impulses our brains can interpret.
The study of relationships between the physical characteristics of stimuli, such as their intensity, and our psychological experience of them.
The minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50 percent of the time
Signal Detection Theory
A theory predicting how and when we detect the presence of a faint stimulus ("signal") amid background stimulation ("noise"). Assumes there is no single absolute threshold and detection depends partly on a person's experience, expectations, motivation, and level of fatigue.
Below one's absolute threshold for conscious awareness.
The activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory.
The minimum difference between two stimuli required for detection 50 percent of the time. We experience the difference threshold as a just noticeable difference.
The principle that, to be perceived as different, two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage (rather than a constant amount)
Diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation.
A mental predisposition to perceive one thing and not another.
The distance (measured in the direction of propagation) between two points in the same phase in consecutive cycles of a wave.
The dimension of color that is determined by the wavelength of light; what we know as the color names blue, green, and so forth.
The amount of energy in a light or sound wave, which we perceive as brightness or loudness, as determined by the wave's amplitude.
The adjustable opening in the center of the eye through which light enters.
A ring of muscle tissue that forms the colored portion of the eye around the pupil and controls the size of the pupil opening.
The transparent structure behind the pupil that changes shape to help focus images on the retina.
The light-sensitive inner surface of the eye, containing the receptor rods and cones plus layers of neurons that begin the processing of visual information.
The process by which the eye's lens changes shape to focus near or far objects on the retina.
Retinal receptors that detect black, white, and gray; necessary for peripheral and twilight vision, when cones don't respond
Retinal receptor cells that are concentrated near the center of the retina and that function in daylight or in well-lit conditions. The cones detect fine detail and give rise to color sensations.
The nerve that carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain.
The point at which the optic nerve leaves the eye, creating a "blind" spot because no receptor cells are located there.
The central focal point in the retina, around which the eye's cones cluster.
Nerve cells in the brain that respond to specific features of the stimulus, such as shape, angle, or movement.
The processing of several aspects of a problem simultaneously; the brain's natural mode of information processing for many functions, including vision. Contrasts with the step-by-step (serial) processing of most computers and of conscious problem solving.
The theory that the retina contains three different color receptors. One most sensitive to red, one to green, one to blue. When stimulated in combination, can produce the perception of any color.
The theory that opposing retinal processes (red-green, yellow-blue, white-black) enable color vision. For example, some cells are stimulated by green and inhibited by red; others are stimulated by red and inhibited by green.
An organized whole. Gestalt psychologists emphasized our tendency to integrate pieces of information into meaningful wholes.
The organization of the visual field into objects (the figures) that stand out from their surroundings (the ground).
The perceptual tendency to organize stimuli into coherent groups.
The ability to see objects in three dimensions although the images that strike the retina are two-dimensional; allows us to judge distance.
A laboratory device for testing depth perception in infants and young animals.
Depth cues, such as retinal disparity, that depend on the use of two eyes.
A binocular cue for perceiving depth; by comparing images from the two eyeballs, the brain computes distance - the greater the disparity (difference) between the two images, the close the object.
Depth cues, such as interposition and linear perspective, available to either eye alone.
An illusion of movement created when two or more adjacent lights blink on and off in quick succession.
Perceiving objects as unchanging (having consistent lightness, color, shape, and size) even as illumination and retinal images change.
Perceiving familiar objects as having consistent color, even if changing illumination alters the wavelengths reflected by the object.
In vision, the ability to adjust to artificially displaced or even inverted visual field.