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African guide who survived the Narvaez expedition by becoming a slave for Indians. He escaped with three other enslaved men and traveled for years in the Americas. He was killed by the Zuni in 1539.


A widespread outbreak of disease.


Royal governor of New Spain.

Hernan Cortes

Conquered the Aztec.

Panfilo de Narvaez

Spanish adventurer whose expedition ended in disaster. After getting lost in the Florida swamps, he shipwrecked on the Texas coast and drowned. The few survivors from his party were taken as slaves by the Indians.


Wild horses descended from Spanish horses. They are tough and able to live off the land.

Juan de Onate

Founder of New Mexico.


Spaniards who searched for gold, glory, and land.

Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca

Spanish explorer who survived a shipwreck, nearly starved, but lived by becoming a slave for Texas Indians. He later escaped and returned to Spain.

Moctezuma II

Ruler of the Aztec empire.

Queen Isabella

Supported the Columbus expedition.

The Columbian Exchange

The transfer of plants, animals, and diseases between the Americas and other continents. Brought European diseases to the New World.

Fray Marcos de Niza

Explorer sent by the Viceroy of New Spain to find the lost cities of gold.

Luis de Moscoso Alvarado

Took command after De Soto died. He explored East Texas but did not find any treasure.

Hernando de Soto

Explored Florida and the southeastern United States. He searched for two years without finding treasure, and then he died of fever.


Expensive products from Asia that was used on food.

Christopher Columbus

Sailor from Italy. He tried to reach Asia by sailing west. He actually reached the Bahamas in the Americas.

The Bahamas

The first island that Columbus landed on.


Spain wanted to introduce this religion to the New World.


The capital of the Aztec empire.

Mexico City

The city that Cortes built over the ruins of the Aztec capital.


Country that took Atzec treasures.

Ferdinand Magellan

First explorer to sail around the world.


Magellan tried to find a southern route to the _________ Ocean.


Seven rich cities that Fray Marcos thought he found. They were really villages of the Zuni Pueblo.


Silk goods from Asia were extra expensive because they had to brought over ___________ routes.

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